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Table 3 Description and methodological approach of studies included in review

From: The impact of shoe flexibility on gait, pressure and muscle activity of young children. A systematic review

AuthorCountryDesignSample sizeGender (Female) n (%)Mean age (SD)monthsGait typeShoe conditions included in analysisOutcome measures
Buckland, 2014USACross sectional Repeated measures258 (32%)15.2 (2.0)WalkLace up sneakers (Ultraflex, Medflex, Lowflex, Stiff)Spatiotemporal
Hillstrom, 2013USACross sectional
Repeated measures
248 (32%)15.2 (2.0)WalkLace up sneakers (Ultraflex, Medflex, Lowflex, Stiff)Plantar pressures
Lythgo, 2009AustraliaCross sectional69 (5 years)33 (48%)68.4 (0.2)WalkAthletic shoes/runners (own)Spatiotemporal
Repeated measures140 (6 years)75 (54%)78.7 (0.3)Walk
Kennedy, 2018AustraliaCross sectional1 (4 years)0 (0%)50.9WalkOptimal (runners) own shoes/sub optimal (flip flops) own shoesSpatiotemporal
Repeated measures3 (5 years)2 (67%)62.8 (5.16)