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Table 3 Characteristics of included trials

From: The progression rate of peripheral arterial disease in patients with intermittent claudication: a systematic review

Publications Trial characteristics Haemodynamic measure Progression of PAD Prognostic factors for progression of PAD
Smith et al. 1998 [29] Prospective observational cohort study
235 participants with IC
3 year follow-up
ABPI ABPI decreased by > 0.14 after 1 year in 21% of participants, 12.5% developed CLI after 3 years Hypertriglycerideamia, ABPI < 0.5 at baseline is associated with increased risk of deterioration
Smith et al. 2003 [28] Prospective observational cohort study
131 participants with IC
5 and 12 year follow-up
ABPI Overall decrease in ABI by 0.09 over 5 yrs. in higher ABPI limb.
Decrease in ABPI by 0.04 in lower ABPI limb
Higher ABI associated with faster deterioration
Lower ABI associated with increased risk of lower limb events
Walsh et al. 1991 [21] Prospective observational cohort study
38 participants (45 limbs) with IC and SFA stenosis
3 year follow-up
Arteriograms, and duplex scans 15.6% of participants developed a 30% increase in stenosis after 1 year. Smoking and symptom progression predictive of SFA stenosis progression. SFA occlusion is synchronous with symptom progression. Contralateral SFA occlusion increases risk of faster stenosis
Bird et al. 1999 [26] Prospective observational cohort study
177 participants with IC
4.7 year follow-up
ABPI, San Diego Claudication questionnaire Overall ABI decrease of 0.02 over 4.6 yrs. and TBPI decrease by 0.013 in 4.7 years Age, DM are associated with rapid progression
Aquino et al. 2001 [24] Prospective observational cohort study
1244 male veterans with IC
3.7 year follow-up
ABPI Overall yearly decline in ABPI by 0.014 ABPI < 0.5, high smoking pack years and DM increase risk CLI
Naschitz et al. 1988 [27] Retrospective cohort study
460 participants with IC referred for vascular surgical consultation
3.8 year follow-up
ABPI, Doppler waveforms, angiography Decrease by 0.15 in ABPI in those who deteriorate (53.2% of participants) ABI > 0.7, no deterioration of ABI predicts good outcome ABI < 0.5 at baseline increases risk of deterioration by 3.8 times
ABI decrease by 0.15 increases risk by 1.9 times for need eventual surgery
Fowkes et al. 1993 [25] Prospective observational cohort study
617 participants with IC
1 year follow-up
ABPI Overall ABPI decrease by -- 0.01 per year
4.8% developed CLI, no haemodynamic report
Age, smoking associated with deterioration in ABPI
Whyman et al. 1993 [30] Prospective observational cohort study
38 participants with IC with femoropopliteal artery stenosis
19 months
Duplex scan (Bollinger score) Patients with velocity ratio > 3 progressed to occlusion within 13 weeks Velocity ratio of > 3 associated with occlusion within 76 weeks.