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Table 2 Participant characteristics and reliability measure

From: The reliability of the ankle brachial index: a systematic review

Reference Number (n) Gender (M,F) Age (years) Height (cm) Weight (kg) DM & control DM duration Medical history PAD Reliability measure
Inter-rater reliability (n = 11)
 Aboyans et al. (2008) [13] 54 28, 26 52.8 ± 17.1 NR NR DM 35.2% control NR NR HT 38.9%, DL 38.9%, CAD 33.3% CVD 11.1% TS 22.2%, 19 IC, 25 RF, 10 healthy ICC
Doppler: Inter: 0.79 (0.70–0.85)
Pulse: inter: 0.40 (0.5–0.57)
Auto ABI inter: 0.44 (0.27–0.58)
 Alvaro-Afonso et al. (2018) [51] 21 15, 6 67 ± 8.7 NR NR All DM2: control NR NR HT 19, DL 17, NEU 18, NEP 1, TS 6 NR Kappa coefficient
Normal: 0.4 (p < 0.001), PAD 0.7 (p < 0.001), MAC 0.43 (p < 0.001)
 Chesbro et al. (2011) [46] 20 NR 22–30 NR NR NR NR Healthy volunteers only None ICC
Doppler: R: 1.00 (95%CI 0.999–1.00, p < .001); L: 0.99 (0.997–1.00, p < .001)
 Chesbro et al. (2013) [56] 10 5, 5 NR NR NR NR NR ‘Healthy young adults’ None ICC
Vascular Cuff
Right: Trial 1: 0.853; Trial 2: 0.898
Left: Trial 1: 0.448; Trial 2: 0.938
Standard Cuff
Right: Trial 1: 0.902; Trial 2:0.817
Left: Trial 1: 0.826; Trial 2: 0.867
 de Graff et al. (2001) [57] 54 31, 23 66 ± 12 NR NR DM 36% control NR NR HT 43%, Dl 35%, CAD 36%, CVD 20%, Suspected Repeatability Coefficient/ICC
Inter: day 20 / 0.92
Inter: week 27 / 0.87
 Georgakarakos et al. (2013) [47] 18 12, 6 54–74 NR NR 9 DM: 3 oral, 6 insulin NR HT 15, DL 9, TS 4 All PAD Mean, Standard Error, t-test
PAD: 0.77 ± 0.19, p = 0.95
No PAD: 1.37 ± 0.12, p < 0.0001
Severe PAD: 0.23 ± 0.07, p = 0.0002
 Holland-Letz et al. (2007) [16] 108 50, 58 68.1 ± 1.5 NR BMI 29 ± 4.3 DM 15.7% control NR NR HT 58.1% DL 54.8%, TS 9.2% current, 40.7% ex-, Hx vasc surg 6 subjects 68.1 ± 1.5 ICC for inter-observer: 0.423
Inter-ob SD 0.103
 Jaffer et al. (2008) [50] 25 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR All suspected PAD Pearson CC r = 0.516 (p < 0.001)
 Langen et al. (2009) [48] 20 11, 9 41–75 NR NR NR NR NR All IC Symptoms Interobserver variability: 10% (SD 0.8)
 Mätzke et al. (2003) [12] 30 18, 15 (no of limbs) 26 > 65 yrs., 7 ≤ 65 yrs NR NR 8 DM, control NR NR NR Ischaemic pressure lesion or rest pain Coefficient of variation: 3.2
 Span et al. (2016) [49] 136 NR 64 ± 7.8 NR NR 19 (14%) control not reported NR HT66, DL 58, TS 22 current, 39 ex- RF or IC Coefficient of variation
Doppler: 5.9% R & L legs
Auto: Right 3.2% Left 3.5%
Intra-rater reliability (n = 8)
 Aboyans et al. (2008) [13] 54 28, 26 52.8 ± 17.1 NR NR DM 35.2% control NR NR HT 38.9%, DL 38.9%, CAD 33.3% CVD 11.1% TS 22.2%, 19 IC, 25 RF, 10 healthy ICC
Doppler: Intra: 0.89 (0.84–0.92)
Pulse: Intra: 0.60 (0.44–0.73),
 Chesbro et al. (2013) [56] 10 5, 5 NR NR NR NR NR ‘Healthy young adults’ None ICC- Intra-rater
Vascular Cuff
Rater 1 R: 0.750; Rater 1 R: 0.696
Rater 2 R: 0.551; Rater 2 L: 0.869
Standard Cuff
Rater 1 R: 0.628; Rater 1 L: 0.420
Rater 2 R: 0.620; Rater 2 L:0.585
 de Graff et al. (2001) [57] 54 31, 23 66 ± 12 NR NR DM 36% control NR NR HT 43%, Dl 35%, CAD 36%, CVD 20%, Suspected Repeatability Coefficient/ICC
Intra: day 9 / 0.98
Intra: week 22 / 0.89
 Demir et al. (2016) [52] 161 87, 74 52.03 ± 18.99 165.12 ± 8.88 75.61 ± 13.4 DM NR NR HT 62.7%, DL 46.6%, TS 29.8%, Mixed population ICC
Single measurement 0.808
Mean: 0.927
 Faccenda et al. (1988) [53] 36 28,8 56 ± 11 NR NR All DM1 NR No other hx reported NR Coefficient of variation 8%
 Holland-Letz et al. (2007) [16] 108 50, 58 68.1 ± 1.5 NR BMI 29 ± 4.3 DM 15.7% control NR NR HT 58.1% DL 54.8%, TS 9.2% current, 40.7% ex-, Hx vasc surg 6 subjects 68.1 ± 1.5 Intra-observer Variance: 0.008, SD 0.87 [0.081; 0.095]
 Millen et al. (2018) [54] 66 51, 15 69.5 ± 12 yrs. (range 35–92) NR NR 4 DM1, 14 DM2   HT 79%, DL 68%, CAD 44%, CVD 17%, TS 15% current, 59% ex- 36 IC, 4 rest pain Coefficient of variation: Dopplex Ability: 9.65 ± 12%
Parks Flo-lab: 4.95 ± 3%
 Rosenbaum et al. (2012) [55] 157 80, 77 59.1 ± 13.2 NR NR 35 DM, control NR NR HT88, DL 103, CAD 14, CVD 2, TS 27 current, 49 ex- 11 PAD, all RF or IC Coefficient of variation: Dopplex Ability: 9.65 ± 12%
Parks Flo-lab: 4.95 ± 3%
  1. NR Not reported, DM Diabetes, HT Hypertension, DL Dyslipidaemia, CAD Coronary artery disease, CVD Cerebrovascular disease, NEU Neuropathy, NEP Nephropathy, TS smoking, IC Intermittent claudication, RF risk factors, PAD Peripheral arterial disease