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Table 4 Self-selected comfortable walking speed and walking energy cost and during the 6-min walk test

From: Stiffness modification of two ankle-foot orthosis types to optimize gait in individuals with non-spastic calf muscle weakness – a proof-of-concept study

  Shoes-only1 DLS-k1 DLS-k3 DLS-k5 Shoes-only2 SH-k1 SH-k4 SH-k5
Speed (m•s− 1)
Subject A 1.08 1.14 (+6%) 1.19 (+11%) 1.13 (+5%) 1.12 1.11 (−1%) 1.12 (+0.4%) 1.11 (−0.4%)
Subject B 1.26 1.25 (−1%) 1.21 (−3%) 1.28 (+2%) N/A 1.25 (−1%) 1.21 (−4%) 1.23 (−2%)
Subject C 1.44 1.45 (+0.3%) 1.40 (−3%) 1.48 (+2%) 1.49 1.43 (−4%) 1.46 (−2%) 1.47 (−2%)
Walking energy cost (J•kg−1•min−1)
Subject A 4.22 4.16 (−2%) 4.07 (−4%) 4.03 (−5%) 5.02 4.98 (−1%) 4.49 (−11%) 5.03 (+0.1%)
Subject B 4.71 4.33 (−8%) 4.20 (−11%) 4.82 (+2%) N/A 4.17 (−11%) 3.86 (−18%) 4.44 (−6%)
Subject C 4.73 5.00 (+6%) 4.54 (−4%) 4.36 (−8%) 4.73 4.47 (−6%) 4.48 (−5%) 4.69 (−1%)
  1. Subject A: calf muscle strength MRC 4, subject B: calf muscle strength MRC 4, subject C: calf muscle strength MRC 0
  2. Shoes-only1 is the shoes-only condition at the DLS-AFO testing day, Shoes-only2 is the shoes-only condition at the SH-AFO testing day (subject B had all AFO conditions tested at one day, therefore only one shoes-only condition was performed)
  3. Percentages are relative compared to shoes-only
  4. Abbreviations: DLS: dorsal-leaf-spring ankle-foot-orthosis, SH: spring-hinged ankle-foot-orthosis, k: stiffness (from most compliant (k1) to most stiff (k5)), N/A: not applicable