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Table 1 Subject characteristics

From: Stiffness modification of two ankle-foot orthosis types to optimize gait in individuals with non-spastic calf muscle weakness – a proof-of-concept study

  Subject A Subject B Subject C
Gender Male Male Male
Age (year) 67 58 60
Length (cm) 173 183 183
Mass (kg) 84 80 65
Side affected Right Right Right
DLS-AFO use (years) 5.9 5.7 1.6
Shoes Low-cut off the shelf High-cut orthopedic Low-cut sports shoes
 Heel-sole difference shoe affected side (mm) 15 23 0
Muscle strength, affected side (MRC scores)
 Hip flexors 4+ 5 5-
 Hip extensors 5 5 5
 Hip abductors 5 5 4
 Hip adductors 5 5 5
 Knee flexors 4+ 5 5
 Knee extensors 4+ 5 5-
 Ankle dorsiflexors 3 1 4
 Ankle plantarflexors 4 4 0
Passive joint range-of-motion#
 Hip flexion and extension Normal Normal Normal
 Knee flexion and extension Normal Normal Normal
 Ankle dorsiflexion (degrees) −10 −10 40
 Ankle plantarflexion (degrees) 60 45 −10
  1. #: Joint range-of-motion was measured passively by hand [23]. For ankle range-of-motion measurements the knee was extended
  2. †: Minus 10 degrees of dorsiflexion means that dorsiflexion could not be reached manually and the ankle could not be moved further than 10 degrees plantarflexion. Likewise, minus 10 degrees plantarflexion means that the ankle could not move further that 10 degrees dorsiflexion. Note: during weight-bearing, ankle dorsiflexion was possible in subject A and B