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Table 7 Associations between multimorbidity and FHSQ pain and function domains

From: The impact of multimorbidity on foot health outcomes in podiatry patients with musculoskeletal foot pain: a prospective observational study

Variable FHSQ pain 3 months FHSQ pain 6 months
Unadjusted B (95% confidence interval) SE B β B SE B β
 Multimorbidity −17.95 (−32.92, − 2.99) 7.53 − 0.32* −25.95 (− 41.68, − 10.23) 7.90 −0.48**
 Single condition − 11.13 (− 28.66, 6.40) 8.82 − 0.17 − 18.20 (− 35.72,-0.68) 8.80 − 0.30*
Adjusted
 Multimorbidity −2.64 (− 13.98, 8.71) 5.70 − 0.05 − 17.17 (− 31.02, − 3.31) 6.94 − 0.32*
 Single condition −3.35 (− 16.14, 9.45) 6.42 − 0.05 − 13.61 (− 28.72, 1.16) 7.40 −0.23
 Baseline FHSQ pain 0.85 (0.67, 1.04) 0.09 0.77** 0.63 (0.44, 0.83) 0.10 0.60**
 Age − 0.35 (− 0.76, 0.06) 0.21 −0.14 − 0.14 (− 0.57, 0.30) 0.22 −0.06
 BMI 0.13 (−0.23, 0.49) 0.18 0.06 −0.01 (− 0.43, 0.41) 0.21 − 0.01
 Sex − 0.11 (− 9.5, 9.30) 4.72 − 0.00 −1.88 (− 12.57, 8.82) 5.40 − 0.03
  FHSQ function 3 months FHSQ function 6 months  
Unadjusted B (95% confidence interval) SE B β B SE B β
 Multimorbidity −33.63 8.11 −0.51** −35.36 8.67 −0.55**
 Single condition −5.36 9.48 −0.07 − 5.07 9.68 −0.07
Adjusted
 Multimorbidity −16.70 (−29.72, −3.67) 6.54 −0.25* −21.71 (−34.02, −9.39) 6.17 − 0.34**
 Single condition −8.60 (− 22.34, 5.15) 6.90 − 0.11 −10.84 (−23.93, 2.26) 6.56 − 0.16
 Baseline FHSQ function 0.75 (− 0.28, 0.58) 0.08 0.71** 0.73 (0.58, 0.88) 0.07 0.71**
 Age 0.15 (−0.28, 0.58) 0.22 0.05 −0.16 (− 0.55, 0.22) 0.19 − 0.06
 BMI 0.03 (−0.35, 0.41) 0.19 0.01 −0.07 (− 0.43, 0.28) 0.18 − 0.03
 Sex 3.98 (−5.86, 13.81) 4.94 0.06 3.98 (−5.29, 13.22) 4.64 0.86
  1. FHSQ Pain 3 months, R2 = 0.06 for unadjusted, R2 = 0.56 for adjusted; FHSQ Pain 6 months, R2 = 0.12 for unadjusted, R2 = 0.46 for adjusted
  2. FHSQ Function 3 months, R2 = 0.22 for unadjusted, R2 = 0.65 for adjusted; FHSQ Function 6 months, R2 = 0.25 for unadjusted, R2 = 0.69 for adjusted
  3. Significant at **p < 0.01 and *p < 0.05
  4. FHSQ Foot health status questionnaire, B Beta coefficient, SE β Coefficient standard error, β Standardised beta coefficient