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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of clinical and paraclinical characteristics associated with CA among adult patients with longstanding diabetes

From: Charcot arthropathy of the diabetic foot in a sub-Saharan tertiary hospital: a cross-sectional study

Clinical / Paraclinical Characteristics Presence of Charcot N = 12 (%) No Charcot N = 88(%) Prob > |z|
History of foot surgery
 Yes 1 (8)a 2 (2)b 0.2507
 No 11 (92) 86 (98)  
History of foot trauma
 Yes 1 (8) 5 (6) 0.7181
 No 11 (92) 83 (94)  
Foot radiograph
 Normal 2 (17) 61 (69)  
 Abnormal 10 (83) 27 (31) c 0.0004
HbA1c
 Means ±SD 6.08 ± 2.17 6.74 ± 2.42  
 95%Confidence interval (4.77, 7.40) (6.23, 7.25)  
 Pr(T > t) 0.2121 0.4115  
  1. The Mann-Whitney U-test for categorical variables with unequal variances was used; the Student’s t-test for continuous variables (HbA1c)
  2. aThe patient had a below knee amputation after foot gangrene b Patients had below knee amputation after foot gangrene and first toe amputation after big toe gangrene c Abnormal, no CA: Arthritic changes (19/27, 71%), osteoporosis (6/27, 22%), toe deformities (2/27, 7%, hallux valgus and congenital malformation)