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Table 4 Standing broad jump kinetics of participants when wearing control and prefabricated orthosis

From: Foot orthoses alter lower limb biomechanics but not jump performance in basketball players with and without flat feet

Variables Foot type group Control Orthosis MDorthosis [95% CI] ANOVA p-value
(Mean ± SD) (Mean ± SD) Foot type Orthosis Interaction
Peak horizontal GRF (%BW) Normal arched 0.49 ± 0.06 0.48 ± 0.66 −0.01 [−0.02,-0.00] .026 .001 .623
Flat-footed 0.44 ± 0.05 0.42 ± 0.05 −0.02 [− 0.03,0.00]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −0.05 [− 0.09,-0.01] −0.06 [− 0.10,-0.01]     
Peak joint moment
 Hip - sagittal (Nm/kg) Normal arched 5.99 ± 9.85 7.21 ± 21.43 −1.22 [−9.25,6.82] .501 .661 .380
Flat-footed 5.15 ± 11.07 1.53 ± 3.84 3.62 [−4.65,11.90]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.84 [−7.66,9.34] 5.67 [−7.89,19.24]     
 Knee -  sagittal (Nm/kg) Normal arched 0.97 ± 0.41 2.65 ± 6.94 −1.68 [−5.52,2.16] .389 .414 .416
Flat-footed 0.86 ± 0.19 0.88 ± 0.16 −0.02 [−0.07,0.03]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.11 [−0.16,0.39] 1.78 [−2.57,6.12]     
 Ankle -  sagittal (Nm/kg) Normal arched 1.01 ± 0.09 1.00 ± 0.12 −0.01 [− 0.04,0.02] .649 .739 .488
Flat-footed 1.02 ± 0.09 1.03 ± 0.11 0.00 [−0.03,0.04]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.01 [−0.06,0.08] 0.03 [−0.07,0.12]     
 Ankle - frontal (Nm/kg) Normal arched 0.09 ± 0.07 0.08 ± 0.06 0.01 [0.01,0.03] .111 .036 .511
Flat-footed 0.14 ± 0.07 0.11 ± 0.06 0.02 [−0.00,0.05]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −0.05 [− 0.10,0.01] −0.04 [− 0.08,0.01]     
Peak joint power
 Hip - sagittal (W/kg) Normal arched 116.97 ± 345.66 78.28 ± 261.29 38.69 [−11.78,89.17] .567 .057 .606
Flat-footed 75.92 ± 171.18 9.81 ± 18.77 66.10 [−50.69,182.89]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 41.05 [− 193.42,275.53] 68.46 [−95.34,232.26]     
 Knee - sagittal (W/kg) Normal arched 8.67 ± 7.21 7.58 ± 2.69 −6.71 [−21.7,8.03] .389 .414 .413
Flat-footed 5.99 ± 1.99 5.95 ± 1.64 0.05 [−0.61,0.70]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 2.67 [−1.96,7.31] 69.89 [−98.79,238.57]     
 Ankle - sagittal (W/kg) Normal arched 7.95 ± 1.89 8.28 ± 2.48 −0.33 [−1.19,0.53] .511 .638 .419
Flat-footed 8.67 ± 1.71 8.58 ± 1.68 0.08 [−0.38,0.56]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −0.71 [−2.20,0.77] − 0.30 [− 2.09,1.49]     
 Ankle - frontal (W/kg) Normal arched 0.21 ± 0.23 0.18 ± 0.14 0.03 [−0.10,0.16] .188 .581 .807
Flat-footed 0.13 ± 0.08 0.12 ± 0.15 0.01 [−0.04,0.07]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −0.08 [− 0.06,0.23] −0.63 [− 0.05,0.18]     
  1. GRF ground reaction force, MDfoot mean difference in foot type (flat foot – normal arch), MDfoot mean difference in orthosis condition (orthosis – control), CI confidence intervals, ANOVA Analysis of Variance. *Significant differences (p < .05) are shown in bold