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Table 3 Standing broad jump kinematics of participants when wearing control and prefabricated orthosis

From: Foot orthoses alter lower limb biomechanics but not jump performance in basketball players with and without flat feet

Variables Foot type group Control Orthosis MDorthosis [95% CI] ANOVA p-value
(Mean ± SD) (Mean ± SD) Foot type Orthosis Interaction
Joint angles at take-off
 Hip - sagittal (°) Normal arched 5.1 ± 6.9 5.8 ± 8.4 − 0.7 [− 2.9,1.5] .945 .409 .799
Flat-footed 5.1 ± 7.2 5.5 ± 7.1 − 0.0 [− 0.0,0.0]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.0 [−5.7,5.78] 0.4 [−6.1,6.9]     
 Knee - sagittal (°) Normal arched 26.6 ± 11.2 26.1 ± 14.7 −0.5 [−4.3,3.2] .803 .932 .723
Flat-footed 24.9 ± 14.8 25.2 ± 14.4 0.3 [−2.4,3.0]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −1.8 [− 12.3,8.8] −0.9 [− 12.9,11.0]     
 Ankle - sagittal (°) Normal arched 30.7 ± 5.6 30.2 ± 5.7 −0.2 [−1.7,1.5] .050 .768 .989
Flat-footed 25.6 ± 6.6 25.5 ± 5.9 −0.2 [−1.5,1.2]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −4.7 [−9.7,0.2] − 4.7 [−9.5,-0.0]     
 Ankle - frontal (°) Normal arched 4.7 ± 5.9 3.8 ± 5.0 0.9 {−0.3,2.1] .098 .028 .583
Flat-footed 8.7 ± 5.0 7.2 ± 6.5 1.4 [−0.5,1.6]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −4.0 [−8.5,0.4] −3.5 [−8.1,1.2]     
Peak angular velocity
 Hip - sagittal (°/s) Normal arched 769.2 ± 266.6 692.2 ± 248.9 −77.0 [−282.6128.6] .013 .420 .600
Flat-footed 572.6 ± 138.4 556.2 ± 108.5 −16.4 [−61.2,28.4]    
MDfoot [95% CI] − 196.6 [− 378.8,14.5] − 136.1 [− 302.0, 29.9]     
 Knee - sagittal (°/s) Normal arched 809.4 ± 269.7 787.0 ± 246.6 22.4 [−44.3,89.1] .892 .457 .783
Flat-footed 816.6 ± 249.0 806.3 ± 228.1 10.3 [−50.4,71.1]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −7.2 [− 221.3, 206.8] −19.3 [− 215.2176.6]     
 Ankle - sagittal (°/s) Normal arched 1041.1 ± 120.4 1065.5 ± 205.0 24.4[−46.3,95.1] .701 .909 .281
Flat-footed 1085.0 ± 121.8 1065.2 ± 115.7 −19.8 [−46.8.7.3]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 43.8 [−55.3142.9] −0.3 [−142.5141.8]     
 Ankle - frontal (°/s) Normal arched 176.6 ± 103.8 247.0 ± 275.3 −70.4 [210.3,69.5] .742 .614 .213
Flat-footed 206.9 ± 120.2 177.0 ± 145.7 30.2 [−15.8,76.3]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −30.3 [−121.2,60.5] 70.3 [−118.4259.0]     
  1. MDfoot mean difference in foot type (flat foot – normal arch), MDfoot mean difference in orthosis condition (orthosis – control), CI confidence intervals, ANOVA Analysis of Variance. *Significant differences (p < .05) are shown in bold