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Table 2 Countermovement jump kinetics of participants when wearing control and prefabricated orthosis

From: Foot orthoses alter lower limb biomechanics but not jump performance in basketball players with and without flat feet

Variables Foot type group Control Orthosis MDorthosis [95% CI] ANOVA p-value
(Mean ± SD) (Mean ± SD) Foot type Orthosis Interaction
Peak vertical GRF (%BW) Normal arched 1.39 ± 0.20 1.38 ± 0.18 0.01 [− 0.01,-0.03] .059 .332 .808
Flat-footed 1.26 ± 0.09 1.26 ± 0.09 0.01 [− 0.01,0.03]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.12 [0.01,0.26] 0.12 [0.00,0.25]     
Peak joint moment
 Hip - sagittal (Nm/kg) Normal arched 0.51 ± 0.56 0.47 ± 0.48 0.04 [0.40,0.48] .071 .896 .827
Flat-footed 0.27 ± 0.16 0.27 ± 0.15 −0.01 [− 0.05,0.04]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.25 [− 0.11,0.60] 0.19 [− 0.12,0.51]     
 Knee - sagittal (Nm/kg) Normal arched 1.22 ± 0.35 1.28 ± 0.23 − 0.06 [− 0.15,0.04] .495 .968 .188
Flat-footed 1.20 ± 0.27 1.14 ± 0.33 −0.05 [− 0.10,0.20]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.03 [−0.24,0.29] 0.13 [−0.10,0.36]     
 Ankle - sagittal (Nm/kg) Normal arched 0.97 ± 0.21 1.01 ± 0.13 0.04 [−0.02,0.09] .219 .774 .086
Flat-footed 0.94 ± 0.12 0.88 ± 0.18 −0.05 [− 0.15,0.05]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −0.04 [− 0.18,0.11] −0.12 [− 0.25,0.01]     
 Ankle - frontal (Nm/kg) Normal arched 0.13 ± 0.11 0.12 ± 0.09 0.01 [− 0.01,0.03] .910 .122 .980
Flat-footed 0.13 ± 0.06 0.12 ± 0.07 0.01 [− 0.01,0.03]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.00 [−0.07,0.07] 0.00 [−0.06,0.07]     
Peak joint power
 Hip - sagittal (W/kg) Normal arched 4.18 ± 3.96 5.36 ± 6.97 −1.18 [−2.97,0.61] .012 .217 .225
Flat-footed 0.27 ± 0.16 0.27 ± 0.15 −0.01 [− 0.05,0.03]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 3.91 [1.43,6.39] 5.08 [0.71,9.45]     
 Knee - sagittal (W/kg) Normal arched 8.14 ± 2.93 8.33 ± 1.82 − 0.18 [−1.15,0.79] .122 .716 .392
Flat-footed 7.22 ± 1.41 6.77 ± 1.77 0.45 [− 0.87,1.78]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.92 [−1.07,2.91] 1.56 [0.05,3.06]     
 Ankle - sagittal (W/kg) Normal arched 7.31 ± 2.54 7.65 ± 1.78 −0.34 [−1.04,0.37] .829 .594 .112
Flat-footed 7.66 ± 1.01 6.98 ± 2.12 0.67 [−0.56,1.90]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −0.34 [−1.91,1.21] 0.67 [−0.95,2.28]     
 Ankle - frontal (W/kg) Normal arched 0.18 ± 0.23 0.16 ± 0.12 0.02 [− 0.06,0.10] .803 .693 .588
Flat-footed 0.15 ± 0.17 0.15 ± 0.20 0.00 [−0.05,0.05]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.03 [−0.14,0.20] 0.01 [− 0.13,0.14]     
  1. GRF ground reaction force, MDfoot mean difference in foot type (flat foot – normal arch), MDfoot mean difference in orthosis condition (orthosis – control), CI confidence intervals, ANOVA Analysis of Variance. *Significant differences (p < .05) are shown in bold