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Table 1 Countermovement jump kinematics of participants when wearing control and prefabricated orthosis

From: Foot orthoses alter lower limb biomechanics but not jump performance in basketball players with and without flat feet

Variables Foot type group Control Orthosis MDorthosis [95% CI] ANOVA p-value
(Mean ± SD) (Mean ± SD) Foot type Orthosis Interaction
Joint angles at take-off
 Hip - sagittal (°) Normal arched 15.5 ± 6.4 14.4 ± 5.6 0.9 [− 0.4,2.1] .911 .393 .323
Flat-footed 15.3 ± 4.0 15.3 ± 5.0 − 0.1 [− 1.9,2.3]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 0.2 [−4.3,4.8] −0.7 [−5.1,3.7]     
 Knee - sagittal (°) Normal arched 8.1 ± 4.8 8.0 ± 3.7 − 0.1 [− 1.2,1.1] .144 .919 .848
Flat-footed 10.3 ± 4.2 10.4 ± 3.1 1.10 [−0.8,3.0]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 2.2 [−1.5,5.9] 2.4 [−0.4,5.2]     
 Ankle - sagittal (°) Normal arched 36.2 ± 3.6 37.0 ± 9.0 0.8 [−3.0,4.6] .008 .972 .506
Flat-footed 29.9 ± 6.6 29.2 ± 6.3 −0.7 [− 2.3,0.9]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −6.3 [−10.5,-2.1] − 7.8 [− 14.3,-1.2]     
 Ankle - frontal (°) Normal arched 3.4 ± 4.2 0.7 ± 4.3 2.7 [0.4,5.0] .186 .016 .287
Flat-footed 4.8 ± 3.8 3.7 ± 5.2 1.10 [− 0.8,3.0]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −1.4 [− 4.5,2.0] −3.0 [−6.8,0.9]     
Peak joint angular velocity
 Hip - sagittal (°/s) Normal arched 522.1 ± 175.8 531.9 ± 135.3 9.8 [−29.8,49.4] .493 .250 .110
Flat-footed 519.3 ± 98.7 461.4 ± 128.3 −58.0 [−146.6,30.8]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −2.8 [− 125.6120.0] −70.5 [− 180.8,39.8]     
 Knee - sagittal (°/s) Normal arched 926.8 ± 227.3 977.5 ± 130.9 − 51.7 [− 131.5,28.1] .976 .850 .107
Flat-footed 982.2 ± 58.5 917.2 ± 239.2 65.0 [−75.4205.4]  
MDfoot [95% CI] −56.4 [− 202.4,89.6] 60.3 [−94.6215.3]   
 Ankle - sagittal (°/s) Normal arched 892.2 ± 229.8 1147.0 ± 731.6 254.8 [− 137.5647.0] .251 .407 .131
Flat-footed 901.1 ± 79.7 825.1 ± 216.1 −76.0 [−198.2,46.1]    
MDfoot [95% CI] 8.8 [− 141.7159.4] − 321.9 [− 795.5151.6]     
 Ankle - frontal (°/s) Normal arched 329.3 ± 158.5 296.5 ± 151.5 32.8 [−8.8,74.5] .957 .053 .992
Flat-footed 332.4 ± 119.2 299.9 ± 171.3 32.5 [−26.8,91.8]    
MDfoot [95% CI] −3.1 [− 122.0,115.9] −3.4 [− 137.1130.3]     
  1. MDfoot = mean difference in foot type (flat foot – normal arch), MDfoot = mean difference in orthosis condition (orthosis – control), CI confidence intervals, ANOVA Analysis of Variance.*Significant differences (p < .05) are shown in bold