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Table 5 NHMRC FORM framework

From: The use of urea for the treatment of onychomycosis: a systematic review

Component Grade Comments
Evidence base C–Satisfactory
One or two level III studies with a low risk of bias, or level I or II studies with a moderate risk of bias
Quantity: Total of 6 studies
Level II: 2 studies;
Level III-2: 1 study;
Level III-3: 2 studies
Level IV: 1 study;
Consistency C–Satisfactory
Some inconsistency
Multiple study designs
All included studies used 40% urea
Good consistency with diagnostic criteria
Varied outcomes but some consistency
Clinical impact D–Poor
Slight or restricted
While four studies reported statistical significance, clinical significance was not reported at all.
Generalisability B–Good
Population(s) studied in body of evidence is/are similar to the target population
Population studied in the evidence base is similar to the target population;
Age range: 22–78 years
Consistent diagnostic criteria and concentration of urea used
Grade of recommendations C–Satisfactory
Body of evidence provides some support for recommendation(s) but care should be taken in its application
Overall, most studies are of moderate methodological quality;
There was consistency noticed in the diagnostic criteria, intervention/control and outcomes measured.
The lack of long-term follow-up existed.