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Table 1 Study and participants characteristics

From: The use of urea for the treatment of onychomycosis: a systematic review

Study N Mean age + SD (range)years Gender (M = Males, F=Females) Pathogens identified (n) Type of Onychomycosis (n) Intervention Comparator/control Intervention frequency Follow up times
Bassiri -Jahromi et al. 2012 [30] 70 50.4 (29–78) 42 M
28 F
T.Rubrum (52)
T.Mentagrophytes (13)
T.Verrucosum (1)
DLSO (57)
PSO (13)
40% urea with 1% fluconazole (urea in combination) 1% fluconazole alone Once daily for six months First = monthly until 6 months
After Tx – 2,4 and 6 months
Lahfa et al. 2013 [31] 105 54.3 ± 14.9 66 M
39 F
NA NA 40% urea,
then bifonazole cream for 8 weeks (urea as adjunct)
1% bifonazole + 40% urea cream,
then bifonazole cream for 8 weeks (urea in combination)
Once daily for 3 weeks First = 21 days
Second = 4 weeks
Bunyaratavej at al. 2016 [32] 53 67.8 ± 10.7 33 M
20 F
NA DLSO (52)
SWO (1)
40% urea 5% amorolfine nail lacquer Once daily Every 2 months until complete cure
After Tx – every 6 months for 2 years
Fraki et al. 1997 [33] 114 44 (19–70) 63 M
51 F
T.Rubrum (112)
T.Mentagrophytes (1)
T.Tonsurans (1)
NA 40% urea, then 150 mg fluconazole (urea as adjunct) 150 mg fluconazole oral Once only Every month until cure or 12 months
After Tx – 1,3 and 6 months
Escalante et al. 2013 [34] 55 NR 19 M
36 F
T.Rubrum (26)
T.Mentagrophytes (2)
TDO (21) 40% urea Group 1 - 250 mg oral terbinafine
Group 2 – 250 mg oral terbinafine + 40% urea cream (urea in combination)
Once nightly for 4 weeks First = 12 weeks
After Tx – 12 weeks
Baran and Tosti 2002 [35] 10 22–65 8 M
2 F
T.Rubrum (7)
Candida (1)
Other pathogens (2)
DLSO (8)
TDO (2)
40% urea NA Twice daily for one week 7 days
  1. Pathogens identified = Trichophyton Rubrum (T.Rubrum), Trichophyton Mentagrophytes (T.Mentagrophytes), Trichophyton Tonsuran (T.Tonsuran) and Trichophyton Verrucosum (T.Verrucosum). Types of Onychomycosis = Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO), Proximal subungual onychomycosis (PSO), Superficial White Onychomycosis (SWO) and Total Dystrophic Onychomycosis (TDO)
  2. NR not reported, Tx treatment