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Table 2 Quality Assessment of Included Studies - cohort, case-control, cross-sectional studies

From: Where do we stand? The availability and efficacy of diabetes related foot health programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a systematic review

Articles Health Evidence Bulletins - Wales: Questions to assist with the critical appraisal of an observational study eg cohort, case-control, cross-sectional. (Type IV evidence) Ballestas [27] Bandaranaike [30] Blatchford [28] Connors [29] Radowski [31] Townsend [32]
A. What is this paper about? 1. Is the study relevant to the needs of the project? Y Y Y Y Y Y
2. Does the paper address a clearly focussed issue in terms of: The population studied? Y Y Y Y Y Y
(Case-control only) Is the case definition explicit and confirmed? na na na na na na
The outcomes considered? Y Y Y Y Y Y
Are the aims of the investigation clearly stated? Y Y Y Y Y Y
B. Do I trust it? 3. Is the choice of study method appropriate? Y Y Y Y Y Y
4. Is the population studied appropriate? (Cohort study) Was an appropriate control group used – i.e. were the groups comparable
(Case-control study) Were the controls randomly selected from the same population as the cases?
N N N N N N
5. Is confounding and bias considered? Have all possible explanations of the effects been considered? N N Y Y Y Y
(Cohort study) Were the assessors blind to the different groups? na na na na na na
(Cohort study) Could selective drop-out explain the effect? Y Y N N N N
(Case-control study) How comparable are the cases and controls with respect to confounding factors? na na na na na na
(Case-control study) Were interventions and other exposures assessed in the same way for cases and controls? na na na na na na
(Case-control study) Is it possible that overmatching has occurred in that cases and controls were matched on factors related to exposure? na na na na na na
6. (Cohort study)Was follow up for long enough Could all likely effects have appeared in the time frame? Y N Y N N Y
Could the effects be transitory? N Y N Y Y Y
Was follow up sufficiently complete? N N Y N N N
Was dose response shown? na na na na na na
C. What did they find? 7. Are tables/graphs labelled and understandable? na Y Y na na Y
8. Are you confident with the author’s choice and use of statistical methods, if employed? na na Y na na Y
9. What are the results of this piece of research? Are the author’s conclusions adequately supported by information cited? Y N Y N N Y
D. Are the results relevant locally? 10. Can the results be applied to the local situation? Consider differences between the local and study populations which could affect the relevance of the study Y N Y N Y Y
11. Were all important outcomes/results considered? N N Y N N Y
12. Is any cost information provided? N N N N N N
13. Accept for use as further Type IV evidence? Y Y Y Y Y Y