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Table 3 Results of included studies (listed by intervention type, NHMRC study level and Quality Index)

From: The effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for common plantar digital compressive neuropathy (Morton’s neuroma): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID NHMRC Quality Index Adverse Events (participants, %) VAS MD (95% CI) SR (95% CI)
Corticosteroid injection
Thomson 2013 [39] RCT High Corticosteroid group
Several, (unknown %) increased foot pain 1–2 days post injection
3, (5.0%) dorsal skin hypopigmentation over injection site at 3 months
2, (3.0%) plantar fat pad atrophy at 3 months
− 23.9 (− 30.4 to − 17.4) NR
Lizano-Diez 2017 [41] RCT Moderate 3, (18.7%) mild skin atrophy at the area of infiltration −20.1 (− 21.8 to − 18.4) 38% (15 to 65)
Mahadevan 2016 [40] RCT Moderate 1, (2.2%) localised depigmentation Ultrasound
−40.8 (− 55.4 to − 26.2)
Non-Ultrasound
− 34.1 (− 48.7 to − 19.5)
Ultrasound
30% (13 to 53)
Non-Ultrasound
5% (0 to 23)
Saygi 2005 [3] RCT Low NR NR 50% (32 to 68)
Park 2017 [54] Case series Moderate NR −57.0 (−59.4 to − 54.6) 20% (15 to 27)
Hassouna 2007 [22] Case series Low NR NR 31% (17 to 48)
Markovic 2008 [1] Case series Low NR NR 63% (41 to 81)
Sclerosing injection
Perini 2016 [55] Case series Moderate Common, (unknown %) short term pain at injection site
178, (80.9%) hypo anaesthesia of the innervated area
−60.0 (− 65.7 to − 54.3) NR
Dockery 1999 [5] Case series Low Common, (unknown %) post-injection neuritis for 48 h NR 82% (73 to 89)
Fanucci 2003 [20] Case series Low 6, (15.0%) transitory plantar pain NR 53% (36 to 68)
Hughes 2007 [7] Case series Low Common, (unknown %) 5–10 s of moderate transient discomfort during injection
17, (16.8%) increased plantar pain 2 to 21 days
1, (1.0%) complex regional pain syndrome which resolved
− 55.0 (− 56.7 to − 53.2) 62% (52 to 72)
Hyer 2005 [19] Case series Low NR −61.2 (− 80.2 to − 42.2) NR
Magnan 2005 [23] Case series Low 1, (1.8%) developed 4th toe pain but unsure if related to intervention NR 80% (69 to 89)
Pasquali 2015 [8] Case series Low Mean local inflammatory reaction 1-week post procedure 0.7, (range, 0 to 2)** −51.0 (−52.9 to − 49.1) 74% (71 to 78)
Radiofrequency ablation
Masala 2018 [53] Case series Moderate NR −73.0 (−74.7 to − 71.3) NR
Chuter 2013 [10] Case series Low 8, (32.0%) described intervention as unpleasant
1, (4.0%) posterior tibial nerve irritation for 3 weeks
− 43.0 (− 50.8 to − 35.2) NR
Deniz 2015 [9] Case series Low 2, (10.0%) superficial cellulitis and moderate haematoma −38.0 (− 48.5 to − 27.5) 60% (36 to 81)
Manipulation/mobilisation
Govender 2007 [48] RCT Moderate NR −24.0 (−31.3 to − 16.7) NR
Cashley 2015 [2] Case series Low NR −65.3 (− 69.8 to − 60.8) NR
Wider footwear and metatarsal padding
Saygi 2005 [3] RCT Low NR NR 14% (5 to 30)
Bennett 1995 [4] Case series Low NR NR 38% (29 to 48)
Cryoneurolysis
Cazzato 2016 [51] Case series Low 1, (4.2%) local cellulitis around cryo-probe entry point NR 78% (52 to 94)
Friedman 2012 [49] Case series Low NR NR 60% (15 to 95)
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy
Seok 2016 [52] RCT Moderate NR −28.3 (−37.8 to − 18.8) 0% (0 to 22)
Orthoses
Kilmartin 1994 [50] RCT Moderate 1, (10%) lower limb pain with supination orthoses
2, (18.2%) lower limb pain with pronation orthoses
Supination
−10.0 (− 28.3 to 8.3)
Pronation
− 15.0 (− 30.6 to 0.6)
NR
Botox injection
Climent 2013 [6] Case series Low NR −32.6 (− 49.0 to − 16.2) NR
  1. NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council levels of evidence [34]; VAS Visual analogue scale, MD Mean difference, SR Success rate, CI Confidence interval, NR None reported; ** 0 (no reaction), 1 (minimal swelling, pain, redness), or 2 (significant swelling, pain, redness)