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Table 2 Repeated measures ANOVA for kinematic variables (N = 18)

From: An analysis of the foot in turnout using a dance specific 3D multi-segment foot model

Kinematic variablea Natural double leg up-right posture Functional turnout Forced turnout Sautés in first position
Mean (SE) (95CI) Mean (SE) (95CI) Mean (SE) (95CI) Mean (SE) (95CI)
Hindfoot eversion 1.1 (0.8) (− 0.6 to 2.8) 5.7 (0.9)* (3.7 to 7.6) 7.1 (0.9)* d (5.2 to 9.0) 15.8 (1.6)* (12.4 to 19.1)
Midfoot abduction 2.8 (1.2) (0.2 to 5.4) 5.6 (1.3)* c (2.8 to 8.4) 6.3 (1.3)* e (3.5 to 9.2) 7.7 (1.3)* (5.0 to 10.5)
Forefoot abduction 7.6 (1.0) (5.4 to 9.8) 8.4 (1.0) (6.2 to 10.6) 8.8 (1.0)f (6.7 to 10.9) 8.7 (1.1) (6.3 to 11.0)
Navicular drop (mm)b   1.6 (0.9) (− 0.3 to 3.5) 1.9 (1.0) (− 0.2 to 4.1) 12.9 (1.2)† (10.4 to 15.5)
First MTPJ abduction 10.7 (1.6) (7.3 to 14.1) 12.0 (1.6) (8.7 to 15.3) 13.5 (1.8) (9.7 to 17.4) 13.1 (1.8) (9.4 to 16.8)
  1. *A significant difference relative to natural double leg up-right posture p < 0.001
  2. †A significant difference relative to functional turnout p < 0.001
  3. aAngle values expressed in degrees unless otherwise signified
  4. bA negative value represents an increase in the navicular tuberosity height. A measurement error < 1 mm
  5. cThis significant result should be interpreted with caution because of the small difference
  6. dA significant difference of p = 0.033 relative to functional turnout. This significant result should be interpreted with caution because of the small difference
  7. eA significant difference of p = 0.012 relative to functional turnout. This significant result should be interpreted with caution because of the small difference
  8. fA significant difference of p = 0.042 relative to natural double leg up-right posture. This significant result should be interpreted with caution because of the small difference
  9. Abbreviations: SE standard error; 95CI, 95% confidence interval