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Table 4 Multilevel regression modelling to account for correlation between feet adjusting for BMI

From: Foot structure, pain and functional ability in people with gout in primary care: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot

Variables Non-gout
N = 102
Gout
N = 26
P value
Arch index: mean (95% CI) 0.24 (0.23, 0.25) 0.24 (0.22, 0.25) 0.636
Subtalar joint inversion ROM: mean (95% CI) 26.71 (25.09, 28.34) 21.15 (18.23, 24.06) < 0.001
Subtalar joint eversion ROM: mean (95% CI) 12.12 (11.09, 13.16) 10.00 (8.47, 11.52) 0.010
First MTPJ dorsiflexion ROM: mean (95% CI) 63.09 (59.56, 66.62) 54.42 (47.81, 61.02) 0.035
Ankle dorsiflexion knee extended ROM: mean (95% CI) 61.94 (60.45, 63.42) 62.90 (59.43, 66.37) 0.609
Ankle dorsiflexion knee flexed ROM: mean (95% CI) 51.97 (50.32, 53.63) 55.03 (51.64, 58.42) 0.092
Navicular height: mean (95% CI) 0.18 (0.17, 0.18) 0.17 (0.16, 0.19) 0.922
Foot posture index: mean (95% CI) 2.29 (1.95, 2.64) 2.20 (1.61, 2.79) 0.791
Hallux valgus: probability (95% CI) 0.29 (0.19, 0.39) 0.17 (0.07, 0.27) 0.065
Foot pain regions
 MTPJ: probability (95% CI) 0.39 (0.30, 0.49) 0.38 (0.22, 0.53) 0.831
 Hallux: probability (95% CI) 0.32 (0.23, 0.40) 0.32 (0.15, 0.49) 0.987
 Greater toes: probability (95% CI) 0.49 (0.39, 0.59) 0.47 (0.31, 0.64) 0.900
 Lesser toes: probability (95% CI) 0.47 (0.37, 0.57) 0.33 (0.18, 0.48) 0.149
 Plantar forefoot: probability (95% CI) 0.30 (0.20, 0.41) 0.24 (0.12, 0.36) 0.397
 Midfoot: probability (95% CI) 0.46 (0.37, 0.54) 0.38 (0.22, 0.54) 0.378
 Medial arch: probability (95% CI) 0.24 (0.17, 0.30) 0.25 (0.12, 0.37) 0.901
 Ankle pain: probability (95% CI) 0.37 (0.28, 0.45) 0.37 (0.21, 0.54) 0.935
 Plantar heel: probability (95% CI) 0.16 (0.13, 0.20) 0.17 (0.14, 0.20) 0.708
Deformity
 1st MTPJ: probability (95% CI) 0.10 (0.04, 0.15) 0.09 (0.00, 0.19) 0.963
 All toes: probability (95% CI) 0.62 (0.38, 0.86) 0.64 (0.33, 0.96) 0.898
 Lesser toes: probability (95% CI) 0.59 (0.46, 0.72) 0.63 (0.40, 0.86) 0.754
Type of deformity for lesser toes
 Mallet: probability (95% CI) 0.14 (0.09, 0.19) 0.33 (0.15, 0.51) 0.017
 Hammer: probability (95% CI) 0.30 (0.17, 0.44) 0.34 (0.09, 0.59) 0.760
 Claw: probability (95% CI) 0.18 (0.17, 0.18) 0.17 (0.17, 0.18) 0.041
 Retracted: probability (95% CI) 0.06 (0.00, 0.23) 0.05 (0.00, 0.20) 0.927
Plantar aspect skin lesion
 Whole foot: probability (95% CI) 0.74 (0.67, 0.81) 0.65 (0.46, 0.85) 0.350
 Greater toe: probability (95% CI) 0.59 (0.51, 0.68) 0.52 (0.34, 0.70) 0.472
 Lesser toes: probability (95% CI) 0.57 (0.47, 0.67) 0.43 (0.24, 0.63) 0.275
 Midfoot: probability (95% CI) 0.51 (0.41, 0.60) 0.42 (0.21, 0.62) 0.493
Dorsal aspect skin lesion
 Whole foot: probability (95% CI) 0.39 (0.00, 0.89) 0.23 (0.00, 1.10) 0.780
 Greater toe: probability (95% CI) 0.24 (0.16, 0.31) 0.11 (0.00, 0.23) 0.100
 Lesser toes: probability (95% CI) 0.38 (0.22, 0.54) 0.20 (0.08, 0.31) 0.115
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, CI Confidence Interval, MTPJ Metatarsophalangeal joint, N Number of participants, ROM range of motion