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Table 1 Inclusion and Exclusion for the Control and PF OA Groups

From: Foot and ankle characteristics and dynamic knee valgus in individuals with patellofemoral osteoarthritis

Inclusion Criteria Both Groups
 (i) aged ≥40 years;
Exclusion Criteria Both Groups
 (i) current or previous pain in the knee, hip, lumbar spine or foot that had lasted longer than 3 months and/or required intervention;
 (ii) foot orthoses use in the last 12 months.
 (iii) a history of hip, knee or foot surgery;
 (iv) neurological or systemic arthritis conditions;
 (v) planned lower limb surgery in the following 2 months;
 (vi) physical inability to undertake testing procedures;
 (vii) an inability to understand written and spoken English.
Specific Inclusion Criteria PF OA
 (i) anterior knee pain aggravated by at least two activities that load the PF joint (e.g. squatting, stair ambulation);
 (ii) pain during these activities present on most days in the past month;
 (iii) pain severity ≥30 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale during aggravating activities;
 (iv) radiographic evidence of PF OA (Kellgren and Lawrence ≥ grade 1 [19]).
Specific Exclusion Criteria PF OA
 (i) concomitant pain from other knee structures (including the TF joint), hip or lumbar spine;
 (ii) recent treatment for PF pain (knee injections within the previous 3 months;
 (iii) foot orthoses or physiotherapy within the previous 12 months)
 (iv) moderate to severe concomitant TF OA (Kellgren and Lawrence grade ≥ 3 on radiograph);
 (v) contraindications to x-ray.