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Table 4 Linear mixed model analysis for the change in peak KFM between footwear and barefoot conditions. Fixed effect estimates, 95% CI and p values are reported for each term analysed within the model

From: Differences and mechanisms underpinning a change in the knee flexion moment while running in stability and neutral footwear among young females

Predictors Change in Peak KFM
Fixed effect estimates, (95% CI), p-value
Footwear condition 0.04, (− 0.10, 0.18), p = 0.55
Change in sagittal plane knee-GRF lever arm (mm) in barefoot condition 0.02, (0.02, 0.03), p < 0.001
Change in sagittal plane knee-GRF lever arm in footwear condition 0.02, (0.01, 0.03), p < 0.001
Change in sagittal plane resultant GRF magnitude (BW) −0.01, (− 0.06, 0.04), p = 0.72
Change in hip flexion angle (°) − 0.004, (− 0.02, 0.01), p = 0.46
Change in knee flexion angle (°) 0.01, (− 0.001, 0.03), p = 0.07
Change in knee flexion at initial contact (°) − 0.0003, (− 0.01, 0.01), p = 0.96
Change in knee flexion excursion (°) 0.003, (− 0.01, 0.03), p = 0.64
Change in ankle dorsiflexion angle (°) − 0.0002, (− 0.01, 0.01), p = 0.97
  1. BW bodyweight, KFM external knee flexion moment, GRF ground reaction force