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Table 3 Differences in biomechanical variables of interest between footwear and barefoot conditions. All variables are reported as mean ± standard deviation with the P value for between shoes and barefoot comparisons

From: Differences and mechanisms underpinning a change in the knee flexion moment while running in stability and neutral footwear among young females

Variable Barefoot Stability Neutral P value barefoot v high-support P value barefoot v low-support P value high-support v low-support
Peak KFM (Nm/kg) 2.24 ± 0.41 2.67 ± 0.41a 2.62 ± 0.39a < 0.001 < 0.001 0.06
Running velocity (m/s) 3.12 ± 0.20 3.12 ± 0.21 3.14 ± 0.21 0.76 0.07 0.41
Stance time (s) 0.23 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.02a 0.25 ± 0.02a < 0.001 < 0.001 0.08
Sagittal plane knee-GRF lever arm (mm)c 103.75 ± 18.05 119.50 ± 18.04ab 117.29 ± 17.05a < 0.001 < 0.001 0.04
Sagittal plane resultant GRF magnitude (BW)c 2.48 ± 0.45 2.55 ± 0.44a 2.56 ± 0.44a < 0.001 < 0.001 0.27
Hip flexion angle (°)c 37.64 ± 7.60 40.45 ± 8.04a 40.04 ± 7.58a < 0.001 < 0.001 0.43
Knee flexion angle (°)c 46.96 ± 4.52 48.99 ± 4.84a 49.36 ± 4.10a < 0.001 < 0.001 0.32
Knee flexion at initial contact (°) 19.11 ± 4.30 16.16 ± 4.40ab 17.64 ± 5.83a < 0.001 0.02 0.04
Knee flexion excursion (°) 32.40 ± 4.79 36.21 ± 4.22a 36.31 ± 4.32a < 0.001 < 0.001 0.77
Ankle dorsiflexion angle (°)c 19.01 ± 3.81 20.17 ± 3.08a 19.75 ± 3.37 0.01 0.12 0.12
  1. BW bodyweight, KFM external knee flexion moment
  2. asignificantly different to barefoot
  3. bsignificantly different to neutral
  4. cat time of peak KFM