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Table 4 Sagittal, frontal and transverse plane RoM (deg, median [25 75%)] of ankle, midtarsal, tarso-metatarsal, and forefoot-hindfoot joints during gait cycle in the PV and ND groups

From: Effect of plano-valgus foot posture on midfoot kinematics during barefoot walking in an adolescent population

Foot joint PV ND p
Sagittal Frontal Transverse Sagittal Frontal Transverse Sagittal Frontal Transverse
Ankle 14.2 [11.4 17.6] 8.4 [6.9 9.9] 10.7 [8.7 12.5] 17.7 [15.6 19.9] 7.7 [6.4 8.4] 11.4 [10.1 13.4] 0.017 0.028 0.037
Midtarsal 15.9 [12.1 19.2] 11.3 [9.3 13.9] 8.3 [5.8 10.7] 22.2 [19.5 24.9] 9.6 [7.8 11.8] 9.7 [7.9 11.4] <  0.01 0.026 0.05
Tarso-metatarsal 14.8 [12.3 18.5] 10.4 [7.7 13.1] 8.8 [6.9 10.9] 14.4 [12.0 17.6] 6.8 [5.6 8.1] 11.0 [8.9 13.7] >  0.05 <  0.001 <  0.01
Forefoot-hindfoot 28.4 [23.0 32.0] 13.9 [10.9 17.5] 11.5 [9.4 17.7] 25.8 [22.9 28.5] 12.3 [10.3 13.9] 13.3 [10.4 16.5] 0.03 0.002 >  0.05
First MTP joint 48.6 [40.0 62.3] 51.6 [45.1 59.0] >  0.05   
MLA 56.0 [45.0 71.0] 36.0 [31.0 44.0] <  0.001   
  1. Sagittal-plane RoM of the first metatarso-phalangeal joint and medial longitudinal arch (MLA) deformation are also reported. Mann-Whitney statistical significant differences in RoM between PV and ND groups are shown on the right (α = 0.01)