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Table 2 Study design, PTTD diagnosis, clinical impairments and participant characteristics, which are presented as mean (SD) or count (percentage)

From: Self-reported social and activity restrictions accompany local impairments in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: a systematic review

Study ID Study design Diagnosis Selection criteria for PTTD Clinical impairments PTTD Control
n Female (%) Age years BMI kg/m n Female (%) Age years BMI kg/m
Chimenti 25 Cross-sectional laboratory Stage II AAFD 1 or more signs of tendinopathy (tenderness, swelling or pain with unilateral heel raise) and 1 or more signs of flexible flatfoot deformity (excessive non-fixed hindfoot eversion, excessive first metatarsal abduction or loss of medial longitudinal arch height) Function & strength, Foot posture, PROM 20 14 (70) 57 (11.3) 30 (5.2) 15 11 (73) 56 (5.3) 26 (4.4)
Houck 30 Cross-sectional laboratory Unilateral stage II PTTD 1 or more signs of tendinopathy (tenderness, swelling or pain with unilateral heel raise) and 1 or more signs of flexible flatfoot deformity (excessive non-fixed hindfoot eversion, excessive first metatarsal abduction or loss of medial longitudinal arch height) Foot posture 30 22 (73) 59.3 (10.8) 29.6 (4.8) 15 14 (93) 56.5 (7.7) 30.5 (3.6)
Houck 29 Cross-sectional laboratory Unilateral stage II PTTD 1 or more signs of tendinopathy (tenderness, swelling or pain with unilateral heel raise) and 1 or more signs of flexible flatfoot deformity (excessive non-fixed hindfoot eversion, excessive first metatarsal abduction or loss of medial longitudinal arch height) Function & strength, Foot posture 30 21 (70) 59.8 (11.1) 29.9 (4.8) 15 14 (93) 56.5 (7.7) 30.6 (3.6)
Houck 24 Case-control Unilateral stage II PTTD Signs of tendon pathology (pain and/or swelling along medial ankle) and flexible flatfoot deformity (hindfoot eversion, forefoot abduction or loss of medial longitudinal arch height) Function & strength, Foot posture 24 18 (75) 61 (10) 30 (5) 15 13 (87) 55 (8) 28 (5)
Kulig 26 Cross-sectional laboratory Unilateral early stage PTTD (I or II) Pain along medial ankle, tender on palpation posterior tibial tendon, lowered medial longitudinal arch, abducted midfoot, absence of rigid foot deformity Function & strength, Foot posture, PROM 17 17 (100) 52.1 (7.5) 29.5 (6.3) 17 17 (100) 50.7 (5.5) 26.9 (5.9)
Kulig 32 Case-control Unilateral early stage PTTD (I or II) Pain along medial ankle, tender on palpation posterior tibial tendon, lowered medial longitudinal arch, abducted midfoot, absence of rigid foot deformity Function & strength, Foot posture, Balance 19 19 (100) 54.6 (6.3) 28.9 (4.5) 20 20 (100) 50.8 (5.5) 26.9 (5.9)
Neville 22 Cross-sectional Unilateral stage II PTTD 1 or more signs of tendinopathy (tenderness, swelling or pain with unilateral heel raise) and 1 or more signs of flexible flatfoot deformity (excessive non-fixed hindfoot eversion, excessive first metatarsal abduction or loss of medial longitudinal arch height) Function & strength, ROM, Foot posture 30 19 (63) 58.1 (10.5) 30.6 (5.4) 15 14 (93) 56.5 (7.7) 30.6 (3.6)
Neville 23 Case-control Unilateral stage II PTTD 1 or more signs of tendinopathy (tenderness, swelling or pain with unilateral heel raise) and 1 or more signs of flexible flatfoot deformity (excessive non-fixed hindfoot eversion, excessive first metatarsal abduction or loss of medial longitudinal arch height) Foot posture, PROM 17 14 (82) 56.1 (11.6) 33.2 (7.4) 10 7 (70) 50.2 (6.8) 31.8 (3.8)
Rabbito 28 Case-control Stage I PTTD Mild swelling, tenderness, pain posterior to the medial malleolus, aggravated by recreational activity ROM, Foot posture 12 9 (75) 30.3 (7.9) 23.2 (3.4) 12 9 (75) 28.5 (8.6) 23.7 (2.8)
Tome 31 Case-control Unilateral stage II PTTD 1 or more signs of tendinopathy (tenderness, swelling or pain with unilateral heel raise) and 1 or more signs of flexible flatfoot deformity (excessive non-fixed hindfoot eversion, excessive first metatarsal abduction or loss of medial longitudinal arch height) Foot posture 14 12 (85) 56.8 (11.7) 33.7 (7.4) 10 7 (70) 51.2 (7.3) 31.8 (3.6)
  1. Abbreviations: AAFD adult acquired flatfoot deformity, PTTD posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, ROM range of motion, PROM patient reported outcome measure