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Table 6 Comorbidities, health characteristics and associations with moderate-to-severe foot pain (MSFP)

From: Foot pain and foot health in an educated population of adults: results from the Glasgow Caledonian University Alumni Foot Health Survey

  Women (n = 399) Men (n = 192) Total (n = 593) c Odds ratio (95% CI) MSFP vs. no MSFP
Heart disease 4 (1.0) 7 (3.6) 11 (1.9) 0.56 (0.15–2.14)
 Treatment 4 (1.0) 5 (2.6) 9 (1.5)  
 Limiting 3 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.5)  
High BP 36 (9.0) 22 (11.5) 58 (9.8) 1.85 (1.07–3.18) **
 Treatment 32 (8.0) 17 (8.9) 49 (8.3)  
 Limiting 2 (0.5) 2 (1.0) 4 (0.7)  
Lung Disease 12 (3.0) 4 (2.1) 16 (2.7) 0.91 (0.33–2.5)
 Treatment 12 (3.0) 3 (1.6) 15 (2.5)  
 Limiting 7 (1.8) 2 (1.0) 9 (1.5)  
Diabetes 8 (2.0) 13 (6.8) 21 (3.5) 0.75 (0.29–1.88
 Treatment 6 (1.5) 9 (4.7) 15 (2.5)  
 Limiting 0 (0.0) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.2)  
Ulcer/stomach 10 (2.5) 7 (3.6) 17 (2.9) 2.21 (0.83–5.89) *
 Treatment 10 (2.5) 5 (2.6) 15 (2.5)  
 Limiting 2 (0.5) 1 (0.5) 3 (0.5)  
Kidney disease d 2 (0.5) 3 (1.6) 5 (0.8) 2.29 (0.38–13.78)
 Treatment 1 (0.3) 1 (0.5) 2 (0.3)  
 Limiting 0 (0.0) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.2)  
Liver disease 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Treatment 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Limiting 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Anaemia/blood 17 (4.3) 2 (1.0) 19 (3.2) 1.71 (0.69–4.28)
 Treatment 14 (3.5) 2 (1.0) 16 (2.7)  
 Limiting 2 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Cancer d 3 (0.8) 2 (1.0) 5 (0.8) 2.29 (0.38–13.78)
 Treatment 3 (0.8) 1 (0.5) 4 (0.7)  
 Limiting 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Depression 50 (12.5) 17 (8.9) 67 (11.2) 1.54 (0.93–2.57) *
 Treatment 41 (10.3) 10 (5.2) 51 (8.6)  
 Limiting 25 (6.3) 7 (3.6) 22 (3.7)  
Osteoarthritis 30 (7.5) 3 (1.6) 33 (5.6) 1.88 (0.93–3.81) *
 Treatment 14 (3.5) 1 (0.5) 15 (2.5)  
 Limiting 19 (4.8) 3 (1.6) 22 (3.7)  
Back pain 114 (28.6) 42 (21.9) 156 (26.3) 2.04 (1.41–2.95) **
 Treatment 34 (8.5) 17 (8.9) 51 (8.6)  
 Limiting 43 (10.8) 14 (7.3) 57 (9.6)  
Rheumatoid arthritis d 5 (1.3) 4 (2.1) 9 (1.5) 12.49 (1.55–100.54) **
 Treatment 5 (1.3) 2 (1.0) 7 (1.2)  
 Limiting 1 (0.3) 3 (1.6) 4 (0.7)  
Hip pain 61 (15.3) 9 (4.70) 70 (11.8) 2.72 (1.63–4.55) **
 Treatment 17 (4.3) 3 (1.6) 20 (3.4)  
 Limiting 28 (7.0) 3 (1.6) 31 (5.2)  
Knee pain 101 (25.3) 36 (18.8) 137 (23.1) 1.56 (1.06–2.30) **
 Treatment 30 (7.5) 9 (4.7) 39 (6.6)  
 Limiting 54 (13.5) 19 (9.9) 73 (12.3)  
Other 76 (19.0) 39 (20.3) 115 (19.4) 1.50 (0.99–2.27) *
 Treatment 38 (9.5) 18 (9.4) 56 (9.4)  
 Limiting 15 (3.8) 15 (7.8) 30 (5.1)  
SCQ total, median (IQR) 1 (0–3) 1 (0–3) 1 (0–3)
  ≥ 1 Medical condition 226 (56.6) 101 (52.6) 327 (55.1) 1.94 (1.38–2.72) **
  ≥ 2 Medical conditions (multi-morbidity) 110 (27.6) 50 (26.0) 160 (26.9) 2.04 (1.42–2.95) **
 Overweight a 193 (52.7) 122 (63.5) 316 (56.0) 2.01 (1.41–2.88) **
 Low physical activity b 45 (11.3) 18 (9.4) 64 (12.5) 0.93 (0.54–1.58)
 Current smoker 19 (4.8) 13 (6.8) 32 (5.4) 0.90 (0.43–1.88)
  1. an = 47 values missing
  2. bn = 82 values missing
  3. cincludes 2 cases who preferred not to disclose gender
  4. dFisher’s exact test conducted where cell frequencies < 5
  5. *significant at p < 0.2
  6. **significant at p < 0.05