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Table 4 Comparison between baseline and six-month follow-up measures of body weight, foot pain, depressive symptoms, plantar pressure, foot posture and ankle joint range of motion for treatment and control groupsa

From: Changes in foot pain, structure and function following bariatric surgery

  Treatment group (n = 26)   Control group (n = 12)  
  Mean difference 95% CI p value Mean difference 95% CI p value
Weight, kg − 24.3 − 27.5 to − 21.1 <  0.001 1.2 −2.5 to 4.9 0.877b
Body mass index, kg/m2 − 8.8 − 10.0 to − 7.6 <  0.001 0.5 −0.8 to 1.8 0.440
MOXFQ-index, points −35.7 −42.7 to − 28.8 <  0.001 − 4.0 − 15.2 to 7.1 0.454
Sum CES-D score −5.9 − 10.3 to − 1.5 0.007b − 4.6 −9.6 to 0.3 0.061b
Contact area (cm2)
 Whole foot −3.4 −8.7 to 2.0 0.210 −3.8 −6.7 to − 0.9 0.014
 Forefoot −0.1 −2.1 to 1.9 0.427b 0.7 −0.6 to 2.1 0.239b
 Hallux 1.0 −0.7 to 2.8 0.232 1.8 −3.3 to 6.9 0.844b
 Heel − 1.4 − 3.4 to 0.6 0.155 − 0.4 −2.0 to 1.2 0.579
 Lesser toes −0.0 −1.8 to 1.7 0.960 1.2 −1.3 to 3.8 0.306
 Midfoot −2.1 −3.9 to −0.3 0.022 0.0 −1.5 to 1.6 0.946
Force (kgf)
 Whole foot −30.2 −36.3 to −24.2 <  0.001 7.1 −2.4 to 16.6 0.126
 Forefoot −18.7 −24.4 to − 13.0 <  0.001b 6.0 0.7 to 11.3 0.010b
 Hallux 1.5 −0.9 to 3.9 0.215 −0.3 −2.7 to 2.1 0.724b
 Heel − 13.9 −18.2 to − 9.5 <  0.001 1.5 − 3.0 to 6.1 0.477
 Lesser toes −0.0 −1.8 to 1.7 0.961 0.6 −1.6 to 2.7 0.581
 Midfoot −6.5 −9.2 to −3.9 <  0.001 0.1 −3.3 to 3.5 0.930
Plantar pressure (kPa)
 Whole foot −36 −50 to − 22 <  0.001 13 0 to 25 0.046
 Forefoot −40 −56 to − 25 <  0.001 123 −3 to 28 0.098
 Hallux −16 −31 to − 2 0.031 3 −15 to 21 0.705
 Heel −45 −65 to − 25 <  0.001 10 −10 to 30 0.276
 Lesser toes −3 −9 to 3 0.366 3 −9 to 16 0.456b
 Midfoot − 45 − 63 to − 26 <  0.001 3 − 14 to 20 0.709
Contact time (seconds) − 0.0 −0.0 to 0.0 0.617 0.0 −0.0 to 0.0 0.553
Hindfoot ROM (degrees)
 Frontal plane −1.4 −4.2 to 1.4 0.410b 1.8 −0.3 to 3.8 0.090b
 Dorsiflexion 0.5 −2.4 to 3.4 0.748 0.5 −2.0 to 3.0 0.643
Foot posture (degrees)
 Talus-second metatarsal angle −0.2 −1.8 to 1.5 0.441b 1.3 −0.1 to 2.6 0.063
 Talo-navicular angle −1.4 −3.1 to 0.3 0.095b 1.0 −1.0 to 3.0 0.284
 Calcaneal inclination angle 0.1 −0.3 to 0.6 0.623b 0.1 −0.7 to 0.9 0.665b
 Calcaneal-first metatarsal angle −0.4 − 0.3 to 1.0 0.300 − 0.4 − 1.9 to 1.0 0.539
  1. m metres, kg kilograms, m2 metres squared, cm2 centimetres squared, MOXFQ Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire, kPa kilopascal, ROM range of motion, CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale
  2. ap calculated for differences between baseline and follow-up measures analysed with the paired samples t-test unless otherwise stated
  3. bp calculated for differences between baseline and follow-up measures analysed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test