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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the treatment and control groups^a

From: Changes in foot pain, structure and function following bariatric surgery

  Treatment group (n = 27) Control group (n = 16) p value
Age, years 45.1 (9.0) 45.3 (10.4) 0.958
Gender, women, n (%)b 25 (86.2) 13 (81.3) 0.661
Height, m 1.7 (0.1) 1.7 (0.1) 0.906
Weight, kg 123.9 (19.4) 132.4 (15.5) 0.140
Body mass index, kg/m2 44.8 (7.0) 47.9 (5.2) 0.120
MOXFQ-index, points 49.7 (18.5) 61.0 (23.0) 0.081
Sum CES-D score 16.9 (11.6) 22.3 (12.0) 0.151
Plantar pressures
 Contact area (cm2)
  Whole foot 181.2 (26.7) 185.2 (23.2) 0.625
  Forefootc 62.3 (9.3) 63.5 (8.6) 0.910
  Halluxc 34.0 (6.9) 35.9 (13.3) 0.940
  Heel 54.0 (8.6) 55.1 (5.0) 0.659
  Lesser toes 31.8 (5.6) 31.7 (6.9) 0.952
  Midfoot 45.8 (10.6) 46.9 (6.1) 0.658
 Force (kgf)
  Whole foot 149.5 (31.5) 155.7 (17.5) 0.479
  Forefoot 97.3 (20.6) 99.8 (14.4) 0.669
  Halluxc 33.9 (7.2) 36.1 (13.1) 0.950
  Heel 80.7 (19.6) 85.8 (10.8) 0.284
  Lesser toes 31.2 (7.5) 30.8 (9.1) 0.870
  Midfoot 41.4 (11.3) 41.6 (8.9) 0.953
 Plantar pressure (kPa)
  Whole footc 386 (50) 393 (34) 0.920
  Forefoot 366 (56) 370 (41) 0.785
  Hallux 170 (43) 186 (74) 0.437
  Heel 354 (61) 365 (56) 0.561
  Lesser toes 54 (20) 60 (22) 0.375
  Midfoot 181 (77) 197 (55) 0.472
  Contact time (seconds) 0.9 (0.1) 0.9 (0.1) 0.745
 Hindfoot ROM (degrees)
  Frontal planec 40.9 (6.3) 38.3 (4.7) 0.094
  Dorsiflexion 61.2 (5.0) 62.4 (6.4) 0.492
 Foot posture (degrees)
  Talo-second metatarsal angle 12.0 (8.4) 8.8 (10.1) 0.265
  Talo-navicular angle 15.3 (6.9) 11.4 (7.6) 0.092
  Calcaneal inclination anglec 20.6 (4.9) 22.1 (3.6) 0.445
  Calcaneal-first metatarsal angle 133.1 (6.3) 131.6 (6.0) 0.420
  1. SD standard deviation, m metres, kg kilograms, m2 metres squared, cm2 centimetres squared, CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, MOXFQ Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire, kPa kilopascal, ROM range of motion
  2. ap calculated for differences between the treatment and control groups analysed with the independent samples t-test
  3. bp calculated for differences between the treatment and control groups analysed with the chi-squared test
  4. cp calculated for differences between the treatment and control groups analysed with the Mann-Whitney U test
  5. ^values are mean (SD) unless otherwise stated