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Table 4 Maximum force at the time of peak pressure (Newtons) using two different masking protocols and during two insole conditions (values are means ± SDs, percentage changes and effect sizes)

From: An anatomically-based masking protocol for the assessment of in-shoe plantar pressure measurement of the forefoot

  Insole condition % change (95% CI) Effect size
  Control Pad in-line   
Traditional mask   518.6 ± 102.1 504.4 ± 91.9 −2.7% (−6.2 to 0.7) 0.15
Anatomically-based mask Distal 207.3 ± 43.8 186.7 ± 37.9 −9.9% (−13.7 to − 6.1) 0.51*
Beneath 134.4 ± 50.2 112.0 ± 30.3 −16.6% (− 26.0 to − 7.3) 0.55*
Proximal 82.0 ± 61.1 102.2 ± 46.2 24.5% (0.2 to 48.9) 0.38*
  1. Note: Control insole condition indicates no metatarsal pad and pad-in-line condition indicates metatarsal pad positioned in-line with the metatarsal head parabola. *Significantly different peak pressure for the pad in-line condition compared with the control condition, p < 0.05