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Table 4 Intra and inter-rater reliability of radiographic angles used to assess metatarsus adductus

From: The identification and appraisal of assessment tools used to evaluate metatarsus adductus: a systematic review of their measurement properties

Radiographic angles: Description of measurement: Study Intra-rater ICC: Inter-rater ICC:
Traditional metatarsus adductus angle (5th) Angle between the second metatarsal and longitudinal axis of the lesser tarsus using the fifth metatarso-cuboid joint as a reference [32] 0.92 0.87
[33] 0.970 0.962
Modified metatarsus adductus angle (4th) Angle between the second metatarsal and longitudinal axis of the lesser tarsus using the forth metatarso-cuboid joint as a reference [38] 0.91 0.93
[33] 0.962 0.972
Rearfoot-2nd metatarsal angle Angle between the longitudinal bisection of the second metatarsal bone and the line parallel to the lateral border of the calcaneum [32] 0.85 0.87
Engel’s angle Angle between the longitudinal axis of the middle cuneiform and the longitudinal axis of the second metatarsal [32] 0.90 0.84
Modified Engel Angle between the longitudinal axis of the second metatarsal and a line perpendicular to the proximal articular surface of the middle cuneiform and the angle between the rearfoot reference line (line parallel to the lateral border of the calcaneum) and the longitudinal axis of the second metatarsal [32] 0.92 0.91
The Berg Classification system Four radiographic measurements that categorises foot deformities into; metatarsus adductus, complex metatarsus adductus, simple skewfoot and complex skewfoot
This includes the following: talus-first metatarsal deviation, calcaneal line to cuboid, AP talocalcaneal line, lateral talocalcaneal angle
[23] Average intra-rater consistency: 74% (ranged from 66.7–81%). Average inter-rater consistency: 64% (ranged from 61.9–66.7%).