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Table 5 Literature review of cross-sectional area values for AbH and FHB (M) by ultrasound and MRI.

From: Reliability and correlates of cross-sectional area of abductor hallucis and the medial belly of the flexor hallucis brevis measured by ultrasound

Author Equipment CSA AbH Transducer alignment/region CSA FHB population Transducer alignment/region
   Mean ± sd (cm²) Mean ± sd (cm ²)  
Abe[59] US 2.46±0.77 Medial hindfoot, inferior to medial malleolus N/A Sports active adults  
Angin[54] US 2.75±0.34 Medial hindfoot, inferior to medial malleolus 2.97±0.46 Normal foot Plantar, proximal forefoot thickest portion
   2.36±0.47   2.66 ±0.46 Pronated foot+8  
Battaglia[76] US 2.47±0.93 Thickest portion from medial calcaneus distally towards the 1st metatarsal N/A Healthy adults non w/b  
   2.60±0.91    Weight/bearing  
Lobo[61] US 2.74± 0.64 Medial hindfoot thickest potion between medial calcaneal tuberosity and navicular tuberosity 2.13±0.65 Healthy adults no HV Plantar mid forefoot thickest portion
   2.22± 0.49   1.57±0.41 Healthy adults with HV  
Mickle[20] US 2.56±0.89 Medial hindfoot thickest portion between medial calcaneal tuberosity and navicular tuberosity 2.45±0.53 Healthy adults Plantar, proximal forefoot thickest portion
   2.45±0.94 Medial hind foot inferior to medial malleolus    
Zhang[52] US 2.62±0.56 Medial hindfoot, inferior to malleolus, thickest portion Unable to determine Runners; Normal foot  
   2.74±0.39    Pronated foot+ 6.6  
Current study US 2.16±0.60 Medial, mid foot inferior to navicular tubercle thickest portion 1.44±0.35(M) Healthy adults Medial-plantar mid metatarsal thickest portion
Kura[72] Muscle volume* 6.68±2.07   1.80± 0.75 FHB(M) 2.12± 0.84 FHBL   
   Total CSA: FHB and AbH  
Green[78] MRI   3.00 mean    Medial foot
   Total CSA : FHB, FDB, Quadratus plantae, lumbricals and AbH  
Kurihara[31] MRI   5.87±1.34    Forefoot 20% of Truncated foot length
  1. *PCSA: Dissection, calipers and water displacement
  2. Key: CSA: cross-sectional area, FHB: flexor hallucis brevis, AbH: abductor hallucis, M: medial, FDB: flexor digitorum brevis, AbH abductor hallucis, PCSA: physiological cross-sectional area, w/b: weight bearing, (M): medial