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Table 3 Between-group differences and effect sizes in foot mobility (with 95% confidence intervals)

From: Age-related differences in foot mobility in individuals with patellofemoral pain

  Foot mobility (mean [SD]) Between-group differences (95% CI)
  18–29 years (n = 70) 30–39 years (n = 101) 40–50 years (n = 23) 18–29 v 30–39 18–29 v 40–50 30–39 v 40–50
     MD SMD MD SMD MD SMD
Midfoot width difference (mm) 9.4 (3.8) 9.5 (3.4) 9.8 (3.4) 0.1 (−1.2 to 1.3) −0.03 (−0.33 to 0.28) 0.2 (−1.8 to 2.2) − 0.11 (− 0.58 to 0.36) 0.2 (− 1.8 to 2.1) − 0.09 (− 0.54 to 0.36)
Midfoot height difference (mm) 14.8 (3.4) 13.6 (3.0) 11.7 (3.4) 1.3 (0.1 to 2.4)* 0.38 (0.07 to 0.69)* 3 (1.2 to 4.9)* 0.91 (0.42 to 1.4)* 1.8 (0.00 to 3.6)* 0.62 (0.16 to 1.1)*
Foot mobility magnitude (mm) 17.9 (3.9) 16.9 (3.4) 15.5 (4.1) 1.1 (−0.2 to 2.4) 0.27 (−0.03 to 0.58) 2.7 (0.6 to 4.8)* 0.61 (0.13 to 1.09)* 1.6 (− 0.5 to 3.7) 0.4 (− 0.06 to 0.85)
  1. *p < 0.05; positive effect size indicates smaller value in older group
  2. MD mean difference, SMD standardised mean difference