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Table 1 List of definitions related to footwear for people with diabetes

From: Diabetic Foot Australia guideline on footwear for people with diabetes

Term Definition
Abnormal foot shape A foot shape that cannot be accommodated in pre-fabricated footwear. This includes, but is not limited to, feet with: hallux valgus, clawed/hammer toes, severe pes-planus or cavus foot type, abnormally wide feet, flat foot, minor amputation or Charcot foot.
Bespoke footwear Synonym for “Custom-made medical grade footwear”.
Custom-made footwear Synonym for “Custom-made medical grade footwear”.
Custom-made insole An insole that is custom-made to the individual’s foot using a 2D or 3D impression of the foot, and that is often built-up in a multi-layer construction. This may also incorporate other features, such as a metatarsal pad or metatarsal bar. The insole is designed to conform to the shape of the foot, providing cushioning and redistribution of plantar pressure.
Custom-made medical grade footwear Footwear uniquely manufactured for one person, when this person cannot be safely accommodated in pre-fabricated medical grade footwear. It is made to accommodate deformity and relieve pressure over at-risk sites on the plantar and dorsal surfaces of the foot. In-depth assessment, multiple measurements, impressions or a mould, and a positive model of a person’s foot and ankle are generally required for manufacture.
Customised insole Term to denote a pre-fabricated insole to which minor modifications specific to a person’s foot may have been made. This term is not synonymous with “Custom-made insole”.
Depth-inlay footwear Synonym for Extra-depth footwear.
Depth footwear Synonym for Extra-depth footwear.
Extra-depth footwear Footwear constructed with additional depth and volume in order to accommodate deformity such as claw/hammer toes and/or to allow for space for a thick insole. Usually a minimum of 5 mm (~3/16″) depth is added compared to pre-fabricated footwear. Even greater depth is sometimes provided in footwear that is referred to as double depth or super extra-depth.
Footwear modification Modification to existing footwear with an intended therapeutic effect, e.g. pressure relief.
In-shoe orthosis/orthotic Term used for device put inside the shoe to achieve pressure reduction or alteration in the function of the foot. Can be pre-fabricated or custom-made.
Liner Synonym for insole.
Medical grade footwear Footwear that meets the specific needs of a person. Can be either pre-fabricated (see “Pre-fabricated medical grade footwear”) or custom-made (see “Custom-made medical grade footwear”).
Metatarsal pad Small pad placed proximal to the metatarsal head to relieve focal pressure and transfer load more proximally.
Metatarsal bar Bar extending across part of or the entire forefoot placed proximal to the metatarsal heads to relieve focal pressures and transfer load more proximally.
Off-the-shelf footwear Readily available footwear that has not been modified and has no intended therapeutic functions.
Orthopaedic footwear Synonym for “Custom-made medical grade footwear”.
Pedorthic footwear Synonym for “Medical grade footwear”. Can be either pre-fabricated (in that case synonym for “Pre-fabricated medical grade footwear”) or custom-made (in that case synonym for “Custom-made medical grade footwear”).
Pedorthic footwear modification Synonym for “Footwear modification”.
Pre-fabricated medical grade footwear Pre-fabricated footwear that meets the specific needs of a person, on the basis of footwear that provides extra depth, multiple width fittings and features designed to accommodate a broader range of foot types. Other features may include modified soles, fastenings and smooth internal linings. This type of footwear is usually available at specialty shoe shops.
Pre-fabricated insole An “off-the-shelf” flat or contoured insole made without reference to the shape of the patient’s foot.
Shoe insert Synonym for insole or in-shoe orthosis.
Shoe last Last used to make footwear. The upper of the footwear is moulded or pulled over the last. The last shape defines the footwear shape including the outsole shape, heel pitch and toe spring. For off-the-shelf or pre-fabricated footwear generically generated lasts in different sizes are used.
Therapeutic footwear Generic term for footwear that is designed to allow some form of treatment. May refer to both custom-made or pre-fabricated medical grade footwear.
Toe orthosis Synonym for “In-shoe orthosis”, but specifically for the toe.
  1. Several healthcare disciplines may be involved in the provision of footwear for people with diabetes. Having a common vocabulary is essential for clear communication. We propose to use the following definitions, obtained from [15, 16, 32, 33] and authors’ expert opinion