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Table 2 Change in maximum force, contact area and peak plantar pressure between baseline and follow-upa (values are means (SD)s unless otherwise indicated)

From: Increase in body weight over a two-year period is associated with an increase in midfoot pressure and foot pain

  Baseline Follow-up Mean difference 95% CI
Maximum force (kg)
 Whole foot 64.6 (19.3) 71.1 (22.1) 6.5 3.2 to 9.7
 Heel 36.4 (10.5) 41.9 (12.0) 5.5 3.5 to 7.4
 Midfoot 13.8 (9.1) 13.4 (8.9) −0.4 −1.9 to 1.2
 Forefoot 47.8 (13.8) 51.6 (16.1) 3.8 1.5 to 6.1
 Hallux 8.0 (2.9) 8.2 (2.7) 0.2 −0.4 to 0.7
 Lesser toes 4.5 (1.9) 4.5 (1.9) 0 −0.5 to 0.5
Contact area (cm2)
 Whole foot 109.1 (17.1) 112.7 (16.7) 3.6 2.2 to 4.9
 Heel 31.0 (4.5) 32.6 (4.7) 1.6 0.9 to 2.4
 Midfoot 25.6 (9.3) 23.2 (8.0) −2.4 −3.8 to −1.1
 Forefoot 47.8 (6.4) 49.2 (6.8) 1.4 0.6 to 2.3
 Hallux 9.8 (1.7) 10.6 (1.6) 0.8 0.2 to 1.1*
 Lesser toes 9.5 (2.9) 11.0 (2.4) 1.5 0.7 to 2.1*
Peak pressure (kPa)
 Whole foot 238 (37) 247 (42) 9 −1 to 18
 Heel 197 (45) 222 (39) 25 14 to 37*
 Midfoot 92 (44) 90 (45) −2 −12 to 8
 Forefoot 233 (40) 238 (46) 5 −4 to 16
 Hallux 155 (42) 150 (40) −5 −14 to 6
 Lesser toes 77 (29) 74 (26) −3 −10 to 4
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, kg kilograms, cm 2 centimetres squared, kPa kilopascal, CI confidence interval
  2. a p calculated for differences between baseline and follow-up measures analysed with linear regression, adjusted for contact time
  3. *p < 0.05