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Table 4 Range of inter-segmental foot motion

From: Inter-segmental motions of the foot: differences between younger and older healthy adult females

  Older female
(n = 50)
Young female
(n = 50)
p value
Hallux relative to forefoot (°)
 Max DF 24.3 ± 6.3 30.8 ± 5.2 < 0.001
 Max PF 11.6 ± 4.4 9.5 ± 3.7 0.034
 ROM 35.9 ± 4.2 40.3 ± 4.3 < 0.001
 Min Val 6.7 ± 6.8 0.9 ± 7.2 < 0.001
 Max Val 15.0 ± 6.1 11.3 ± 6.7 0.004
 ROM 8.4 ± 2.9 10.4 ± 2.9 0.001
Forefoot relative to hindfoot (°)
 Max DF 4.9 ± 3.0 3.5 ± 3.7 0.032
 Max PF 8.6 ± 3.8 11.2 ± 3.9 <0.001
 ROM 13.5 ± 3.3 14.8 ± 2.8 0.023
 Max Sup 15.2 ± 5.0 11.8 ± 4.0 0.001
 Min Sup 5.1 ± 4.4 3.1 ± 4.5 0.089
 ROM 10.1 ± 3.2 8.7 ± 2.6 0.014
 Max Add 0.5 ± 4.7 −0.5 ± 6.4 0.411
 Max Abd 10.9 ± 4.6 11.0 ± 6.0 0.965
 ROM 11.4 ± 2.9 10.5 ± 3.3 0.098
Hindfoot relative to tibia (°)
 Max DF 13.6 ± 3.1 14.0 ± 3.0 0.484
 Max PF 7.8 ± 4.2 11.5 ± 5.9 0.001
 ROM 21.4 ± 3.6 25.5 ± 5.3 < 0.001
 Max Sup 7.6 ± 4.7 11.3 ± 4.2 < 0.001
 Max Pron 3.7 ± 3.9 1.5 ± 3.9 0.015
 ROM 11.3 ± 3.3 12.8 ± 3.5 0.053
 Max IR 10.1 ± 7.9 9.8 ± 7.7 0.911
 Max ER 2.5 ± 6.0 3.4 ± 6.3 0.650
 ROM 12.6 ± 3.9 13.2 ± 4.9 0.392
n Archa
 Max 29.7 ± 3.1 28.6 ± 3.6 0.090
 Min 22.3 ± 3.1 19.6 ± 4.3 0.001
 Range 7.5 ± 1.9 9.0 ± 2.1 < 0.001
 Max 108.1 ± 4.1 103.7 ± 3.7 < 0.001
 Min 119.7 ± 3.9 116.7 ± 3.6 < 0.001
 Range 11.5 ± 1.8 13.0 ± 1.7 < 0.001
Arch index@
 Max 0.25 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.03 0.791
 Min 0.21 ± 0.03 0.19 ± 0.04 0.001
 Range 0.04 ± 0.02 0.06 ± 0.02 < 0.001
Foot progression angle (°)
 Max ER 21.0 ± 6.4 20.4 ± 6.6 0.110
 Min ER 6.6 ± 5.6 5.0 ± 3.5 0.426
 Range 14.4 ± 4.2 15.4 ± 5.4 0.568
  1. Control data were adapted from previous study [18]
  2. aArch data is normalized with the height of the subject. (arch height or length/subject’s height X 100)
  3. @Arch index = Arch height / Arch length