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Table 4 Mean, SD, and reference range for the PP, CT, CA, PTI, and MaF for the 10 regions of the foot

From: Normal foot loading parameters and repeatability of the Footscan® platform system

Zone PP (kPa) CT (stance time%) CA (cm2) PTI (kPa s) MaF (N)
Mean (SD) Reference range Mean (SD) Reference range Mean (SD) Reference range Mean (SD) Reference range Mean (SD) Reference range
LB UB LB UB LB UB LB UB LB UB
T1 161.6 (48.9) 65.8 257.4 57.7 (15.5) 27.3 88.1 15.5 (2.4) 10.8 20.2 40.4 (16.2) 8.6 72.2 146.0 (59.9) 28.6 263.4
T2–5 47.1 (22.3) 3.4 90.8 41.8 (12.0) 18.3 65.3 16.0 (3.2) 9.7 22.3 8.5 (3.9) 0.9 16.1 69.3 (32.3) 6.0 132.6
M1 178.3 (38.3) 103.2 253.4 68.5 (12.8) 43.4 93.6 13.3 (2.6) 8.2 18.4 45.7 (15.9) 14.5 76.9 160.1 (67.1) 28.6 291.6
M2 367.5 (87.9) 195.2 539.8 79.9 (4.3) 71.5 88.3 11.6 (1.5) 8.7 14.5 88.3 (25.0) 39.3 137.3 313.5 (78.9) 158.9 468.1
M3 344.6 (101.4) 145.9 543.3 82.8 (3.7) 75.5 90.1 12.5 (1.1) 10.3 14.7 85.2 (28.1) 30.1 140.3 370.1 (93.5) 186.8 553.4
M4 234.6 (56.3) 124.3 344.9 82.2 (3.9) 74.6 89.8 9.8 (1.2) 7.4 12.2 54.7 (20.3) 14.9 94.5 212.1 (58.7) 97.0 327.2
M5 116.4 (31.2) 55.2 177.6 77.8 (5.0) 68.0 87.6 12.8 (1.9) 9.1 16.5 31.9 (14.5) 3.5 60.3 149.1 (55.9) 39.5 258.7
MF 65.3 (27.3) 11.8 118.8 62.9 (9.2) 44.9 80.9 38.4 (7.7) 23.3 53.5 15.8 (7.1) 1.9 29.7 197.1 (97.2) 6.6 387.6
MH 255.7 (50.1) 157.5 353.9 58.7 (6.4) 46.2 71.2 21.8 (2.4) 17.1 26.5 53.0 (16.5) 20.7 85.3 460.7 (106.7) 251.6 669.8
LH 220.0 (45.7) 130.4 309.6 57.9 (6.6) 45.0 70.8 19.3 (2.1) 15.2 23.4 46.1 (14.2) 18.3 73.9 337.5 (82.4) 176.0 499.0
  1. PP peak pressure, CT contact time, CA contact area, PTI pressure-time integral, MaF maximum force, SD standard deviation, T1 hallux, T2–5 toes 2–5, M1 first metatarsal, M2 second metatarsal, M3 third metatarsal, M4 fourth metatarsal, M5 fifth metatarsal, MF midfoot, MH medial heel, LH lateral heel, LB lower bound, UB upper bound