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Table 3 Association between tophus location at each site in the foot and ankle and muscle forcea

From: Clinically-evident tophi are associated with reduced muscle force in the foot and ankle in people with gout: a cross-sectional study

   Least-squares mean (SD) Diff. 95% CI P
Tophus location Absent Present Lower Upper
Plantarflexion force Hallux 91.3 (30.2) 72.1 (29.4) 19.1 −2.6 40.9 0.083
Lesser Toes 92.2 (30.1) 77.5 (29.4) 14.7 −0.9 30.3 0.065
First MTP 91.0 (30.4) 77.7 (29.8) 13.4 −6.1 32.8 0.175
Lesser MTPs 89.6 (30.5) 100.0 (29.3) −10.3 −52.3 31.6 0.627
Midfoot 89.4 (30.4) 101.6 (29.8) −12.3 −42.4 17.9 0.422
Heel 89.3 (30.3) 117.5 (28.6) −28.2 −69.6 13.2 0.177
Achilles 94.2 (29.1) 65.1 (29.3) 29.1 13.2 45.0 <0.001
Dorsiflexion force Hallux 68.1 (26.8) 47.9 (25.8) 20.2 1.1 39.3 0.038
Lesser Toes 67.9 (27.3) 59.5 (26.8) 8.4 −5.8 22.6 0.243
First MTP 66.5 (27.5) 67.3 (27.0) −0.7 −18.4 16.9 0.933
Lesser MTPs 66.9 (27.4) 52.3 (26.3) 14.6 −23.1 52.3 0.444
Midfoot 66.0 (27.3) 81.4 (26.8) −15.4 −42.6 11.7 0.262
Heel 66.1 (27.2) 94.8 (27.2) −28.7 −68.0 10.6 0.149
Achilles 69.4 (27.1) 51.2 (27.1) 18.2 3.4 32.9 0.016
Inversion force Hallux 53.4 (19.1) 46.4 (18.8) 7.1 −6.8 21.0 0.314
Lesser Toes 53.7 (19.1) 48.7 (18.4) 5.0 −4.8 14.9 0.311
First MTP 53.0 (19.2) 52.2 (18.8) 0.8 −11.5 13.1 0.899
Lesser MTPs 53.0 (19.1) 48.6 (18.3) 4.4 −21.9 30.6 0.742
Midfoot 52.3 (18.9) 66.4 (18.4) −14.1 −32.7 4.6 0.137
Heel 52.4 (18.8) 72.4 (16.8) −20.0 −44.4 4.4 0.106
Achilles 54.9 (18.6) 40.9 (18.8) 14.0 3.8 24.2 0.008
Eversion force Hallux 51.5 (18.2) 43.7 (17.4) 7.8 −5.1 20.8 0.233
Lesser Toes 50.9 (18.3) 50.9 (18.0) 0.0 −9.5 9.6 0.997
First MTP 50.9 (18.3) 50.6 (18.0) 0.3 −11.4 12.0 0.962
Lesser MTPs 50.9 (18.3) 48.9 (17.6) 2.0 −23.2 27.2 0.875
Midfoot 50.6 (18.2) 58.7 (17.9) −8.2 −26.3 10.0 0.374
Heel 50.7 (18.2) 63.2 (18.6) −12.5 −39.5 14.4 0.355
Achilles 53.4 (17.7) 37.0 (17.6) 16.4 6.8 26.0 0.001
  1. aResults are presented adjusted for gout disease duration, age and foot pain VAS. Bolded P values indicate significant difference between groups at Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of P < 0.0125. Diff. Difference in least-squares mean between the two groups, CI confidence interval