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Table 2 Association between foot and ankle tophus presence and muscle forcea

From: Clinically-evident tophi are associated with reduced muscle force in the foot and ankle in people with gout: a cross-sectional study

  Least-squares mean (SD) Diff. 95% CI for Diff. P
Foot/ankle tophus absent Foot/ankle tophus present Lower Upper
Plantarflexion force, N 99.9 (31.5) 75.4 (31.0) 24.5 11.5 37.4 <0.001
Dorsiflexion force, N 74.2 (28.9) 55.7 (18.3) 18.5 6.6 30.3 0.003
Inversion force, N 58.2 (20.2) 45.5 (19.6) 12.6 4.4 20.9 0.003
Eversion force, N 56.2 (19.3) 43.4 (18.8) 12.9 5.0 20.8 0.001
  1. aResults are presented adjusted for gout disease duration, age and foot pain VAS. Bolded P values indicate significant difference between groups at Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of P < 0.0125. Diff. difference in least-squares mean between the two groups, CI confidence interval