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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Clinically-evident tophi are associated with reduced muscle force in the foot and ankle in people with gout: a cross-sectional study

  Foot or ankle tophi P
Absent Present
N 35 22  
Male, n (%) 31 (89%) 19 (86%) 0.81
Age, years 60 (14) 60 (12) 0.89
BMI, kg/m2 33 (8) 33 (6) 0.68
Ethnicity
 European, n (%) 11 (31%) 6 (27%) 0.26
 Māori, n (%) 8 (23%) 3 (14%)
 Pacific, n (%) 13 (37%) 13 (59%)
 Asian, n (%) 3 (9%) 0 (0%)
Type 2 diabetes, n (%) 14 (40%) 7 (32%) 0.53
Stage 3 or worse chronic kidney disease, n (%)a 19 (54%) 17 (77%) 0.06
Hypertension, n (%) 26 (74%) 16 (73%) 0.90
Cardiovascular disease, n (%) 12 (34%) 6 (27%) 0.58
Gout disease duration, years 11 (10) 25 (13) < 0.001
Gout flares in previous 3 months 0.6 (1.1) 0.5 (0.9) 0.55
Serum urate, mmol/L 0.41 (0.13) 0.39 (0.13) 0.58
Urate lowering therapy, n (%) 31 (89%) 21 (96%) 0.59
Total foot tophus count 0 (0) 4.6 (5.6) 0.001
Total body tophus count 1.7 (4.6) 12.9 (12.8) 0.001
Foot pain VAS, mm 5.7 (30.4) 15.5 (38.5) 0.05
Global pain VAS, mm 12.4 (27.9) 14.4 (35.5) 0.74
Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index 10.6 (12.5) 16.6 (15.8) 0.044
  1. Values are mean (SD) unless otherwise specified. aDefined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73mm2; bFor those in employment; Bolded P values indicate significant difference between groups at P < 0.05. BMI body mass index, VAS visual analogue scale