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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for participant, sonographic and clinical characteristics

From: Are ultrasound features at the first metatarsophalangeal joint associated with clinically-assessed pain and function? A study of people with gout, asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia

Variable Control Gout Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia
N 34 23 29
Gender, male, n (%) 34 (100) 23 (100) 29 (100)
Age, years 58 (14) 58 (14) 58 (19)
Ethnicity, n (%) European 30 (88) European 14 (61) European 24 (83)
Maori 1 (3) Maori 1 (4) Maori 0 (0)
Pacific 0 (0) Pacific 4 (17) Pacific 3 (10)
Asian 3 (9) Asian 4 (17) Asian 2 (7)
BMI, kg/m2 25.0 (2.9) 30.8 (3.8)a 29.3 (5.9)a
Diuretic use, n (%) 4 (12) 3 (13) 7 (24)
NSAID use, n (%) 7 (21) 14 (61)a 11 (38)
Prednisone use, n (%) 0 (0) 5 (22) 0 (0)
Hypertension, n (%) 9 (26) 16 (70)a 16 (55)a
Cardiovascular disease, n (%) 1 (3) 6 (26)a 5 (17)
Diabetes, n (%) 2 (6) 4 (17) 1 (3)
Serum urate, mg/dl 5.4 (1.0) 5.9 (1.7) 7.7 (0.8)a
Disease duration, years - 18 (11) -
Number of acute flares in preceding 3 months - 1.4 (1.4) -
1MTP flares in preceding 3 months, n (%) - 6 (26) -
History of 1st MTP joint flares, n (%) - 19 (83) -
Presence of clinically-evident tophi at any site, n (%) - 17 (74) -
Presence of clinically-evident tophi at the 1st MTP joint, n (%)b - 6 (13) -
Urate lowering therapyb, n (%) - 22 (96) -
Microscopically-proven gout, n (%) - 6 (26) -
US double contour signb, n (%) 9 (13) 17 (37) 21 (36)
US tophusb, n (%) 0 (0) 6 (13) 0 (0)
US erosionb, n (%) 2 (3) 15 (33) 1 (2)
US synovitisb, n (%) 5 (7) 20 (44) 2 (3)
1st MTP joint pain VASb, mm 1.6 (4.0) 8.5 (15.6) 6.9 (15.1)
Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index 1.8 (6.0) 13.4 (10.8) 3.4 (4.8)
1st MTP joint range of motionb, ° 77.6 (17.4) 59.0 (19.6) 76.5 (16.9)
1st MTP joint temperatureb, °C 25.3 (2.1) 27.4 (2.8) 26.1 (2.2)
Gait velocity, m/s 1.05 (0.19) 0.88 (0.17) 1.05 (0.24)
  1. Values presented as mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated. aSignificantly different from control group (P < 0.05). bValues are based on joints (controls = 68 joints; gout = 46 joints; asymptomatic hyperuricaemia = 58 joints). BMI body mass index, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, US ultrasound, VAS Visual Analogue Scale, o degrees