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Table 2 Outcomes data. Mean (sd) baseline and follow-up outcome data for all variables, as well as model adjusted differences (follow-up minus baseline; difference (95% confidence intervals)) within each condition as well as between conditions. Model estimate values represent the within- and between-condition least-square mean differences adjusted for period and random subject effects from the regression modeling

From: Lateral wedges with and without custom arch support for people with medial knee osteoarthritis and pronated feet: an exploratory randomized crossover study

  Lateral wedges (n = 24) Lateral Wedges plus Arch Support (n = 22) Between-conditions comparison
Variable Baseline Follow-up Difference Baseline Follow-up Difference Difference
WOMAC Pain (0-20) 5.9 (3.0) 5.2 (2.9) -0.7 (-1.8, 0.5) 6.3 (3.4) 4.0 (2.5) -1.9 (-3.1, -0.6)* -1.2 (-2.9, 0.5)
WOMAC Function (0-68) 20.2 (11.0) 17.6 (8.9) -2.5 (-6.2, 1.1) 21.4 (12.5) 14.0 (8.8) -6.1 (-9.9, -2.3)* -3.6 (-7.9, 0.8)
FFI-R Pain (25-100%) 41.0 (17.4) 38.4 (11.9) -2.7 (-8.9, 3.5) 43.6 (16.2) 33.0 (9.3) -7.0 (-13.5, -0.6)* -4.3 (-12.0, 3.4)
FFI-R Stiffness (25-100%) 39.2 (15.7) 37.1 (13.7) -2.1 (-7.3, 3.0) 42.8 (19.5) 32.3 (9.4) -6.3 (-11.7, -0.9)* -4.1 (-11.0, 2.7)
Stair climb (seconds) 5.32 (1.68) 5.35 (1.54) 0.04 (-0.55, 0.63) 6.57 (4.04) 5.58 (2.29) -0.69 (-1.3, -0.08)* -0.73 (-1.36, -0.11)*
  1. * p < 0.05