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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants by age group

From: Age-related reduction and independent predictors of toe flexor strength in middle-aged men

  Total 35–39 years 40–44 years 45–49 years 50–54 years 55–59 years Pa
N = 1401 315 198 140 343 405  
Age (years) 48.0 ± 8.1 36.0 ± 1.4 42.3 ± 1.8* 47.5 ± 0.5*† 51.6 ± 0.5*†‡ 57.2 ± 1.8*†‡§ < 0.001
Height (cm) 170.5 ± 5.9 171.5 ± 5.7 172.4 ± 5.5 171.3 ± 5.3 170.0 ± 6.0*† 168.9 ± 5.9*†‡ < 0.001
BM (kg) 67.9 ± 10.1 67.2 ± 10.2 70.0 ± 10.2* 68.9 ± 8.9 67.8 ± 9.9 67.3 ± 10.5† 0.012
%fat (%) 22.4 ± 5.6 22.1 ± 5.8 22.7 ± 5.5 22.6 ± 4.7 23.0 ± 5.9 22.1 ± 5.4 0.162
LBM (kg) 52.3 ± 5.5 51.9 ± 5.1 53.7 ± 5.4* 53.1 ± 5.0 51.9 ± 5.5† 52.0 ± 5.8† < 0.001
FM (kg) 11.8 ± 3.6 11.5 ± 3.7 12.3 ± 3.6 12.0 ± 3.1 12.0 ± 3.6 11.6 ± 3.5 0.101
BMI (kg/m2) 23.4 ± 3.3 22.8 ± 3.3 23.5 ± 3.3 23.5 ± 2.6 23.5 ± 3.2 23.6 ± 3.4 0.018
LBMI (kg/m2) 18.0 ± 1.5 17.6 ± 1.5 18.0 ± 1.6* 18.1 ± 1.2* 17.9 ± 1.6 18.2 ± 1.6* < 0.001
WC (cm) 81.9 ± 8.9 79.3 ± 8.5 81.7 ± 9.2* 81.5 ± 7.6* 82.6 ± 8.7* 83.4 ± 9.1* < 0.001
FBG (mg/dL) 99.4 ± 11.5 93.7 ± 11.5 96.6 ± 11.5 98.8 ± 19.4*† 100.1 ± 15.8*† 104.8 ± 17.6*†‡§ < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 118.4 ± 13.8 114.5 ± 11.3 115.4 ± 12.8 116.7 ± 13.6 119.7 ± 13.6*† 122.3 ± 15.2*†‡ < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 76.9 ± 9.3 73.8 ± 8.2 75.7 ± 8.4 77.2 ± 9.1 78.1 ± 9.6*† 78.8 ± 9.6*† < 0.001
TG (mg/dL) 116.7 ± 88.1 100.7 ± 68.4 110.5 ± 84.4 131.1 ± 111.7* 120.1 ± 77.5 124.3 ± 100.3* 0.001
HDL-C (mg/dL) 60.6 ± 16.2 60.8 ± 15.2 61.3 ± 16.3 59.2 ± 15.5 59.7 ± 16.5 61.4 ± 16.7 0.487
LDL-C m (g/dL) 126.4 ± 29.9 122.2 ± 31.5 125.3 ± 29.3 130.0 ± 31.2* 129.7 ± 28.8* 126.2 ± 28.9 0.012
Total protein (g/dL) 7.12 ± 0.36 7.14 ± 0.34 7.11 ± 0.33 7.13 ± 0.36 7.09 ± 0.37 7.12 ± 0.36 0.538
Albumin (g/dL) 4.51 ± 0.25 4.59 ± 0.24 4.53 ± 0.23 4.53 ± 0.27* 4.49 ± 0.24* 4.46 ± 0.26*†‡ < 0.001
Sleeping time (h/day) 6.21 ± 0.93 6.18 ± 0.97 6.10 ± 1.00 6.08 ± 0.77 6.21 ± 0.90 6.32 ± 0.94‡ 0.021
Exercise habit (%)b,c 67.5 58.1 59.6 74.3*† 70.8*† 73.6*† < 0.001
Drinkers (%)b 76.8 76.2 75.3 79.3 74.6 79.0 0.586
Current smokers (%)b 38.5 41.9 35.9 30.7 42.3 36.5 0.077
Former smokers (%)b 15.2 8.6 13.1 17.1* 19.5* 17.0* 0.001
Never smokers (%)b 46.3 49.5 51.0 52.1 38.1*†‡ 46.4§ 0.007
  1. Data are mean ± SD. a P values from ANOVA or chi-square test. b Chi-square test. c At least one period of exercise per week. *, †, ‡, and §, significantly different from the groups aged 35–39, 40–44, 45–49, and 50–54 years, respectively (P < 0.05)