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Table 4 Summary of the results

From: The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot

  Mean RoM Max RoM Min RoM Max Joint Angle Min Joint Angle COV25 (%)
Tibia to Talus – Plantarflexion 17.0 19.5 14.9 5.9 −16.1 100
Calcaneus to Talus – Inversion 12.9 16.2 9.3 15.1 −4.0 97
Calcaneus to Cuboid – Plantarflexion 8.3 13.1 5.0 3.3 −11.7 29
Calcaneus to Cuboid – Inversion 7.6 12.5 5.6 4.0 −11.0 56
Calcaneus to Cuboid – Adduction 9.8 15.3 6.1 15.3 −4.0 27
Talus to Navicular – Plantarflexion 6.3 8.4 2.6 5.0 −4.3 100
Talus to Navicular – Inversion 9.3 13.7 4.0 0.9 −13.7 14
Talus to Navicular – Adduction 14.6 18.6 9.6 17.8 −6.0 70
Navicular to Central Cuneiform - Plantarflexion 2.0 3.5 0.6 2.0 −1.4 85
Navicular to Central Cuneiform – Adduction 1.8 2.4 1.1 2.3 −0.7 73
Navicular to Lateral Cuneiform - Plantarflexion 2.8 7.0 1.2 4.5 −2.5 34
Navicular to Lateral Cuneiform – Adduction 1.3 1.8 0.7 1.8 −0.2 58
Central Cuneiform to Metatarsal 2 - Plantarflexion 2.0 3.5 0.6 2.0 −1.4 85
Central Cuneiform to Metatarsal 2 - Adduction 1.6 2.3 1.1 2.1 −0.6 5
Lateral Cuneiform to Metatarsal 3 - Plantarflexion 2.8 7.0 1.2 4.5 −2.5 34
Lateral Cuneiform to Metatarsal 3 - Adduction 2.1 3.0 1.0 2.6 −0.9 26
Cuboid to Metatarsal 4 – Plantarflexion 6.9 9.7 3.9 4.4 −6.2 100
Cuboid to Metatarsal 4 – Adduction 6.4 11.1 1.8 4.9 −8.2 17
Cuboid to Metatarsal 5 – Plantarflexion 8.3 13.1 5.0 3.3 −11.7 29
Cuboid to Metatarsal 5 – Adduction 5.5 10.8 2.2 6.0 −7.5 25
Metatarsal 1 to Proximal Phalange 1 - Plantarflexion 40.0 46.4 32.3 28.9 −33.7 100
Metatarsal 1 to Proximal Phalange 1 - Adduction 11.5 19.7 5.7 12.0 −10.0 12
Metatarsal 2 to Proximal Phalange 2 - Plantarflexion 33.4 40.5 27.4 31.0 −28.3 42
Metatarsal 2 to Proximal Phalange 2 - Adduction 11.5 33.7 4.9 13.3 −20.4 6
Metatarsal 3 to Proximal Phalange 3 - Plantarflexion 27.5 36.3 21.3 33.3 −22.9 29
Metatarsal 3 to Proximal Phalange 3 - Adduction 14.3 42.3 5.9 14.3 −28.1 4
Metatarsal 4 to Proximal Phalange 4 - Plantarflexion 23.4 35.8 14.1 35.8 −17.5 21
Metatarsal 4 to Proximal Phalange 4 - Adduction 11.0 16.1 9.1 8.7 −10.8 4
Metatarsal 5 to Proximal Phalange 5 - Plantarflexion 22.4 38.7 12.8 38.7 −12.8 13
Metatarsal 5 to Proximal Phalange 5 - Adduction 14.5 22.3 7.8 6.7 −22.3 19
Proximal Phalange 1 to Distal Phalange 1 - Plantarflexion 19.8 31.4 6.5 19.2 −16.4 65
Proximal Phalange 2 to Central Phalange 2 – Plantarflexion 16.1 30.4 5.9 17.6 −13.7 13
Proximal Phalange 3 to Central Phalange 3 – Plantarflexion 22.0 37.8 9.8 19.1 −19.0 70
Proximal Phalange 4 to Central Phalange 4 – Plantarflexion 25.5 48.1 16.3 21.1 −27.0 27
Proximal Phalange 5 to v Phalange 5 - Plantarflexion 22.4 42.9 8.0 17.4 −35.8 13
  1. All data was calculated for the complete population