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Table 3 Physical assessment generated statements, round in which they were accepted, presence of paediatric ranges and if they were incorporated based on acceptable reliability

From: Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP): development of a consensus based paediatric podiatry and physiotherapy standardised recording proforma

Question theme Generated statements Consensus % Agreement % Round Accepted Paediatric ranges or values Incorporated into final proforma
What reflexes should be tested in the lower limb? 66. Patella (knee jerk, quadriceps) (Grading 0–4) 94   1 N/A Yes [25]
67. Achilles (ankle jerk, gastrocnemius) (Grading 0–4) 84   1 N/A Yes [25]
68. Plantar reflex (up or down going) 71   1 N/A Yes [26]
What other neurological observations should be recorded? 69. Presence of ankle catch (R1/R2)   88 2 N/A Yes [25]
70. Presence of ankle clonus   94 2 N/A Yes [25]
71. Dorsiflexion strength (Grading 0–5)   71 2 No Yes [27]
72. Plantarflexion strength (Grading 0–5)   71 2 No Yes [27]
73. Inversion strength (Grading 0–5)   71 2 No Yes [27]
74. Eversion strength (Grading 0–5)   71 2 No Yes [27]
75. Beighton score   94 2 Yes [28] Yes [28]
How is hip range of movement measured? 76. Internal/external rotation with the knee flexed and extended) 76   1 Yes [3, 5] Yes [3]
77. Modified Thomas test 71   1 Yes [5, 29] Yes [30]
78. Hip abduction 71 8 1 Yes [5, 31] Yes [31]
How is hamstring range of movement measured? 79. Popliteal angle 88   1 Yes [7] Yes [5]
How leg length measured? 80. Observation (frontal plane pelvic/shoulder tilt, scoliosis check, knee creases, head tilt, foot posture, gait)   94 2 N/A Yes [24]
How is the rotational profile measured? 81. Foot thigh angle   82 2 Yes [5] Yes [32]
  82. Other observations:(metatarsus adductus) 76 82 2 Yes [33] Yesa
How is ankle range of movement measured? 83. Non weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion with knee extended and knee flexed) 94   1 Yes [5] Yesb[34]
  84. Weight bearing lunge test (knee extended and flexed) 76 82 2 Yes [3, 35] Yes [1]
85. Observed ability to squat 88 88 2 No No
84. Observed ability to walk on toes 88 88 2 No No
85. Observed ability to heel walk 88 88 2 No No
How is the presence of a genu valgum/genu varum measured? 86. Inter-condylar/inter-malleolar distance (Weight-bearing) 82   1 Yes [36] Yes [37]
How is foot posture measured? 87. Foot Posture Index-6 76   1 Yes [2] Yes [38]
88. Hubscher maneuver (Jack’s test)   82 2 No No
89. Subtalar joint axis   71 2 No No
90. Subtalar joint ROM   71 2 No No
  91. Forefoot to rearfoot relationship   71 2 No No
92. Midtarsal joint non weightbearing ROM   71 2 No No
  93. 1st MPJ Non weightbearing ROM   76 2 No No
  94. Ability to stand on tip toes   82 2 No No
  95. Does the rearfoot resupinate while on tiptoes   82 2 No No
  1. aNo reliability results available
  2. bReliability lower than weightbearing lunge however recommended when a child is unable to place their heels on the ground