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Table 1 Kinematic parameters in the ipsilateral limb. Range of motion and maximum/minimum sagittal-plane rotation angles [deg] at the hip, knee and ankle joint in the right side for the three shoe conditions. Kinematic parameters were determined according to [18]

From: Pedobarographic and kinematic analysis in the functional evaluation of two post-operative forefoot offloading shoes

   Half-Shoe Full-Outsole Control p p p
[deg] [deg] [deg] HS vs FO HS vs CON FO vs CON
HIP ROM 44.0 46.4 46.7 0.321 0.158 0.917
sagittal-plane (39.4 46.3) (41.0 48.3) (43.0 48.5)
ROM 12.1 12.0 12.5 0.981 0.866 0.943
frontal-plane (11.4 13.3) (10.9 13.1) (11.3 14.3)
ROM 9.9 10.2 10.6 0.575 0.097 0.535
transverse-plane (7.2 13.5) (7.4 14.5) (7.2 13.8)
Max flexion in swing 30.3 30.7 32.0 0.886 0.962 0.744
(27.8 35.9) (28.0 36.0) (28.4 35.4)
Max extension in stance −10.7* −11.4 −13.2 0.166 0.028 0.734
(−15.7 −0.9) ( −16.4 −9.5) (−17.1 −9.9)
KNEE ROM 67.3 68.5 71.4 0.917 0.028 0.077
sagittal-plane (60.4 72.2)* (64.2 72.4) (69.2 74.2)
ROM 9.9 11.1 10.8 0.715 0.682 0.998
frontal-plane (7.1 12.6) (6.5 13.1) (8.5 13.7)
ROM 14.9 16.6 15.6 0.747 0.784 0.998
transverse-plane (11.2 17.7) (13.1 19.1) (12.2 18.4)
Max flexion at loading response 12.4 13.2 14.2 0.999 0.973 0.983
(9.4 15.7) (5.5 15.5) (10.2 15.5)
Max extension in stance 2.3 2.1 1.1 0.978 0.978 0.915
(−0.3 3.6) (−1.0 4.6) (0.2 3.0)
ANKLE ROM 25.1 27.2 28.1 0.308 0.287 0.999
sagittal-plane (21.6 27.5) (24.5 30.1) (26.0 30.3)
ROM 11.1 11.4 9.4 0.929 0.321 0.529
frontal-plane (9.7 12.9) (8.2 14.4) (7.3 13.0)
ROM 12.7 11.6 13.0 0.692 1.00 0.695
transverse-plane (10.5 17.6) (9.6 14.1) (10.7 15.0)
Max dorsiflexion 13.6 20.1 16.7 0.111 0.971 0.065
in stance (6.8 23.7) (12.9 29.0) (10.6 19.6)
Max plantarflexion at loading response −0.9 −4.2 −7.0 0.911 0.046 0.015
(−10.7 4.6)* (−9.3 6.1)* (−10.6 −2.2)
  1. *denotes statistically significant difference between any FOS and control (p < 0.05)