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Table 1 Summary of the studies investigating the relationship between children’s foot posture and body mass

From: The relationship between paediatric foot posture and body mass index: do heavier children really have flatter feet?

Date Author, country Ages (years) Sample (N) Methods of foot posture assessment Flat feet related to body mass
2001 Dowling, Australia 8 - 9 26 Footprints, pressure mat yes
2006 Pfeiffer, USA 3 - 6 835 Scanner, rearfoot angle yes
2006 Mickle, Australia 4 - 5 38 Footprints, US fat pad measures yes
2007 Morrison, UK 9 - 12 200 Foot length/width, navicular height yes
2008 Mauch, Germany 2 - 14 2887 Scanner yes
2009 Villarroya, Spain 9 – 16.5 58 Footprints, x-rays yes
2009 Chen, Taiwan 5 - 13 1024 Footprints, 3D scan yes
2010 Chang, Taiwan 7 - 12 2083 footprints yes
2011 Evans, Australia 7 - 10 140 FPI-6 no
2013 Wozniacka, Poland 3 - 13 1115 Scanner yes
2013 Jimemez-Ormeno, Spain 6 - 12 1032 3D digitizer yes