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Table 1 Mean ratings (SD) (Round 1; range: 0–10) and agreement rates (Round 2; %) for items to be included within the definition

From: A consensus definition and rating scale for minimalist shoes

  Round 1 Round 2
  Rating Inclusion
Provisionally included   
Low heel to toe drop 9.2 (1.8) 88.1
High flexibility 9.1 (1.8) 95.2
Absence of motion control/stability technologies 9.1 (1.9) 97.6
Provide minimal interference to the natural movement of the foot 9.0 (2.6) 88.1
Light weight 8.9 (1.9) 92.9
Low stack height 8.6 (2.3) 88.1
Allow for natural expansion of the forefoot 8.4 (2.6) 85.7
Anatomical last (wide toe-box) 7.3 (3.3) 78.6
Encourage lower limb kinematics similar to barefoot 7.2 (3.8) 61.9
Encourage lower limb kinetics similar to barefoot 7.1 (3.9) 61.9
  Round 1 Round 2
  Rating Exclusion
Provisionally excluded   
Allow for ground feel 6.9 (3.1) 66.7
Encourage lower limb muscle activation similar to barefoot 6.8 (3.9) 71.4
Absence of sole cushioninga 5.6 (3.8) ---
Facilitate afferent feedback similar to barefoot runninga 4.9 (3.8) ---
Replicate energy expenditure of barefoot running 4.8 (3.5) 83.3
Replicate oxygen consumption of barefoot running 4.6 (3.4) 81.0
Adequate vertical volume of toe-boxa 3.8 (3.5) ---
  1. aAdditional items suggested by participants during Round 1. These items did not obtain sufficient ratings to be further considered for inclusion