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Table 5 Factors associated with disabling foot pain

From: Foot problems in people with gout in primary care: baseline findings from a prospective cohort study

  Disabling foot pain in last month n(%) No disabling foot pain in last montha n(%) Unadjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjustedb OR (95 % CI)
N 155 923   
Age, mean (SD) 66.3 (11.9) 64.8 (12.6) 1.11c (0.96, 1.27) 1.24c (0.98, 1.56)
Gender:     
 Male 120 (77.4) 796 (86.2) 1.0 1.0
 Female 35 (22.6) 127 (13.8) 1.83 (1.20, 2.78) 1.59 (0.85, 2.95)
Neighbourhood deprivation tertiles:     
 Most deprived 64 (41.3) 273 (29.6) 1.0 1.0
 Mid-deprived 46 (29.7) 316 (34.2) 0.62 (0.41, 0.94) 0.83 (0.47, 1.46)
 Least deprived 45 (29.0) 334 (36.2) 0.57 (0.38, 0.87) 0.96 (0.55, 1.68)
BMI (kg/m2):     
 <25.0 19 (13.4) 185 (20.9) 1.0 1.0
 25.0–29.9 54 (38.0) 418 (47.1) 1.26 (0.73, 2.18) 1.73 (0.82, 3.64)
 30.0–34.9 41 (28.9) 195 (22.0) 2.05 (1.15, 3.66) 2.44 (1.10, 5.41)
 ≥35.0 28 (19.7) 89 (10.0) 3.06 (1.62, 5.78) 3.10 (1.28, 7.47)
Anxiety:     
 None 83 (55.3) 714 (81.7) 1.0 1.0
 Mild 31 (20.7) 101 (11.6) 2.64 (1.66, 4.19) 1.13 (0.56, 2.28)
 Moderate 20 (13.3) 37 (4.2) 4.65 (2.58, 8.38) 1.53 (0.56, 4.20)
 Severe 16 (10.7) 22 (2.5) 6.26 (3.16, 12.39) 1.05 (0.31, 3.55)
Depression:     
 None 55 (39.6) 675 (79.8) 1.0 1.0
 Mild 39 (28.1) 99 (11.7) 4.83 (3.05, 7.67) 3.27 (1.80, 5.97)
 Moderate 16 (11.5) 45 (5.3) 4.36 (2.32, 8.22) 2.45 (0.92, 6.51)
 Moderately severe 16 (11.5) 19 (2.3) 10.33 (5.03, 21.22) 4.16 (1.28, 13.51)
 Severe 13 (9.4) 8 (1.0) 19.94 (7.93, 50.17) 8.81 (2.04, 38.01)
Comorbidity:     
 Diabetes mellitus 41 (26.5) 141 (15.3) 1.99 (1.34, 2.97) 0.90 (0.50, 1.62)
 Hypertension 106 (68.4) 561 (60.8) 1.40 (0.97, 2.01) 0.81 (0.46, 1.42)
 Hyperlipidaemia 86 (55.5) 392 (42.5) 1.69 (1.20, 2.38) 1.38 (0.83, 2.29)
 Ischaemic heart disease 45 (29.0) 145 (15.7) 2.19 (1.49, 3.24) 1.84 (1.06, 3.20)
 Cerebrovascular disease 9 (5.8) 66 (7.2) 0.80 (0.39, 1.64) 0.67 (0.29, 1.57)
Gout characteristics:     
 Duration (mean (SD)) 13.5 (13.9) 11.7 (11.7) 1.12d (0.98, 1.29) 1.17d (0.96, 1.42)
 Current attack 48 (32.2) 72 (8.1) 5.39 (3.54, 8.19) 2.63 (1.39, 4.98)
 Number of attacks in last 12 months:     
  0 39 (26.4) 328 (37.3) 1.00 1.00
  1–2 44 (29.7) 341 (38.8) 1.09 (0.69, 1.71) 0.94 (0.51, 1.73)
  ≥3 65 (43.9) 211 (24.0) 2.59 (1.59, 3.99) 1.26 (0.64, 2.47)
 Oligo/polyarticular attacks 87 (58.8) 310 (35.0) 2.65 (1.86, 3.78) 1.59 (0.98, 2.58)
 Current allopurinol use 91 (62.3) 490 (55.8) 1.31 (0.91, 1.88) 1.13 (0.67, 1.90)
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, SD standard deviation
  2. ano foot pain or foot pain that is not disabling
  3. bOR adjusted for age, gender, deprivation, BMI, anxiety, depression, comorbidity and gout characteristics
  4. cper 10-year increase in age
  5. dper 10-year increase in duration of disease