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Table 4 Factors associated with foot pain in the last month

From: Foot problems in people with gout in primary care: baseline findings from a prospective cohort study

  Foot pain in last month n (%) No foot pain in last month n (%) Unadjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjusteda OR (95 % CI)
N 248 875 - -
Age, mean (SD) 66.6 (11.7) 65.0 (12.7) 1.11b (0.99, 1.24) 1.14b (0.94, 1.38)
Gender:     
 Male 190 (76.6) 752 (85.9) 1.0 1.0
 Female 58 (23.4) 123 (14.1) 1.87 (1.31, 2.65) 1.33 (0.77, 2.30)
Neighbourhood deprivation tertiles:     
 Most deprived 93 (37.5) 258 (29.5) 1.0 1.0
 Mid-deprived 78 (31.5) 304 (34.7) 0.71 (0.50, 1.00) 0.81 (0.50, 1.31)
 Least deprived 77 (31.1) 313 (35.8) 0.68 (0.48, 0.96) 1.14 (0.71, 1.82)
BMI (kg/m2):     
 <25.0 34 (15.2) 177 (21.1) 1.0 1.0
 25.0–29.9 90 (40.2) 397 (47.2) 1.18 (0.77, 1.82) 1.64 (0.89, 2.99)
 30.0–34.9 62 (27.7) 182 (21.6) 1.77 (1.11, 2.83) 2.23 (1.16, 4.27)
 ≥35.0 38 (17.0) 85 (10.1) 2.33 (1.37, 3.95) 2.61 (1.25, 5.45)
Anxiety:     
 None 133 (60.7) 677 (81.8) 1.0 1.0
 Mild 41 (18.7) 96 (11.6) 2.17 (1.44, 3.28) 1.05 (0.57, 1.95)
 Moderate 25 (11.4) 34 (4.1) 3.74 (2.16, 6.48) 1.38 (0.56, 3.39)
 Severe 20 (9.1) 21 (2.5) 4.85 (2.56, 9.19) 1.21 (0.41, 3.51)
Depression:     
 None 93 (47.0) 644 (80.2) 1.0 1.0
 Mild 52 (26.3) 90 (11.2) 4.00 (2.67, 6.00) 3.02 (1.78, 5.11)
 Moderate 20 (10.1) 43 (5.4) 3.22 (1.82, 5.71) 1.42 (0.58, 3.46)
 Moderately severe 20 (10.1) 18 (2.2) 7.69 (3.93, 15.08) 3.41 (1.22, 9.57)
 Severe 13 (6.6) 8 (1.0) 11.25 (4.54, 27.88) 4.55 (1.20, 17.18)
Comorbidity:     
 Diabetes mellitus 59 (23.8) 134 (15.3) 1.73 (1.22, 2.44) 1.00 (0.60, 1.66)
 Hypertension 166 (66.9) 529 (60.5) 1.32 (0.98, 1.78) 0.98 (0.62, 1.57)
 Hyperlipidaemia 117 (47.2) 374 (42.7) 1.20 (0.90, 1.59) 1.12 (0.74, 1.71)
 Ischaemic heart disease 56 (22.6) 140 (16.0) 1.53 (1.08, 2.17) 1.43 (0.87, 2.35)
 Cerebrovascular disease 18 (7.3) 62 (7.1) 1.03 (0.60, 1.77) 0.83 (0.40, 1.69)
Gout characteristics:     
 Duration, mean (SD) 12.7 (13.4) 11.8 (11.8) 1.06c (0.94, 1.20) 1.05c (0.88, 1.25)
 Current attack 62 (26.1) 65 (7.7) 4.21 (2.87, 6.19) 2.38 (1.35, 4.20)
 Number of attacks in last 12 months:     
  0 63 (27.2) 313 (37.5) 1.0 1.0
  1–2 77 (33.2) 323 (38.7) 1.18 (0.82, 1.71) 0.96 (0.58, 1.59)
  ≥3 92 (39.7) 199 (23.8) 2.30 (1.59, 3.31) 1.17 (0.66, 2.05)
 Oligo/polyarticular attacks 132 (56.4) 289 (34.4) 2.47 (1.84, 3.32) 1.67 (1.11, 2.51)
 Current allopurinol use 144 (62.1) 463 (55.6) 1.31 (0.97, 1.76) 1.11 (0.72, 1.72)
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, SD standard deviation
  2. aOR adjusted for age, gender, deprivation, BMI, anxiety, depression, comorbidity and gout characteristics
  3. bper 10-year increase in age
  4. cper 10-year increase in duration of disease