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Table 3 Factors associated with hallux valgus

From: Foot problems in people with gout in primary care: baseline findings from a prospective cohort study

  Hallux valgus n(%) No hallux valgus n(%) Unadjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjusted ORa (95 % CI)
N 418 714 - -
Age, mean (SD) 68.7 (11.8) 63.6 (12.6) 1.41b (1.27, 1.57) 1.47b (1.26, 1.72)
Gender:     
 Male 313 (74.9) 636 (89.1) 1.0 1.0
 Female 105 (25.1) 78 (10.9) 2.74 (1.98, 3.78) 2.03 (1.31, 3.15)
Neighbourhood deprivation tertiles:     
 Most deprived 131 (31.3) 219 (30.7) 1.0 1.0
 Mid-deprived 148 (35.4) 236 (33.1) 1.05 (0.78, 1.41) 0.97 (0.67, 1.40)
 Least deprived 139 (33.3) 259 (36.3) 0.90 (0.67, 1.21) 1.02 (0.70, 1.48)
BMI (kg/m2):     
 <25.0 83 (21.5) 132 (19.2) 1.0 1.0
 25.0–29.9 171 (44.2) 315 (45.9) 0.86 (0.62, 1.20) 1.04 (0.70, 1.56)
 30.0–34.9 88 (22.7) 162 (23.6) 0.86 (0.59, 1.26) 1.29 (0.81, 2.05)
 ≥35.0 45 (11.6) 77 (11.2) 0.93 (0.59, 1.47) 1.21 (0.68, 2.16)
Anxiety:     
 None 287 (74.0) 534 (79.4) 1 1
 Mild 52 (13.4) 82 (12.2) 1.18 (0.81, 1.72) 1.04 (0.61, 1.77)
 Moderate 29 (7.5) 32 (4.8) 1.69 (1.00 2.84) 1.37 (0.60, 3.10)
 Severe 20 (5.2) 25 (3.7) 1.49 (0.81, 2.73) 0.83 (0.31, 2.25)
Depression:     
 None 249 (68.0) 489 (76.4) 1 1
 Mild 62 (16.9) 82 (12.8) 1.48 (1.03, 2.14) 1.36 (0.85, 2.19)
 Moderate 23 (6.3) 38 (5.9) 1.19 (0.69, 2.04) 1.33 (0.62, 2.87)
 Moderately severe 20 (5.5) 18 (2.8) 2.18 (1.13, 4.20) 1.39 (0.52, 3.72)
 Severe 12 (3.3) 13 (2.0) 1.81 (0.82, 4.03) 1.83 (0.53, 6.37)
Comorbidity:     
 Diabetes mellitus 73 (17.5) 119 (16.7) 1.06 (0.77, 1.46) 0.69 (0.46, 1.06)
 Hypertension 279 (66.8) 420 (58.8) 1.41 (1.09, 1.81) 0.83 (0.58, 1.17)
 Hyperlipidaemia 192 (45.9) 299 (41.9) 1.18 (0.92, 1.50) 1.18 (0.85, 1.62)
 Ischaemic heart disease 86 (20.6) 121 (17.0) 1.26 (0.93, 1.73) 0.89 (0.59, 1.33)
 Cerebrovascular disease 35 (8.4) 46 (6.4) 1.33 (0.84, 2.10) 1.14 (0.70, 2.18)
Gout characteristics:     
 Duration, mean (SD) 12.7 (12.9) 11.4 (11.6) 1.09c (0.98, 1.21) 1.14c (0.99, 1.31)
 Current attack 54 (13.6) 72 (10.4) 1.34 (0.93, 1.97) 1.07 (0.63, 1.82)
 Number of attacks in last 12 months:     
  0 136 (34.3) 244 (35.8) 1.0 1.0
  1–2 152 (38.1) 251 (36.8) 1.08 (0.81, 1.44) 1.06 (0.73, 1.54)
  ≥3 109 (27.5) 187 (27.4) 1.05 (0.76, 1.43) 1.12 (0.72, 1.75)
 Oligo/polyarticular attacks 159 (39.9) 261 (38.0) 1.08 (0.84, 1.39) 0.96 (0.69, 1.33)
 Current allopurinol use 222 (56.5) 379 (55.7) 1.03 (0.80, 1.32) 1.06 (0.75, 1.49)
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, SD standard deviation
  2. aOR adjusted for age, gender, deprivation, BMI, anxiety, depression, comorbidity and gout characteristics
  3. bper 10-year increase in age
  4. cper 10-year increase in duration of disease