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Table 2 Toe grip strength (TGS) and foot structure characteristics

From: Associations between toe grip strength and hallux valgus, toe curl ability, and foot arch height in Japanese adults aged 20 to 79 years: a cross-sectional study

  Total Men Women pvalue
TGS (kg) 13.2 (5.6) 17.6 (6.0) 12.4 (5.3) < 0.001
Foot length (cm) 22.7 (1.1) 24.6 (0.3) 22.3 (0.8) < 0.001
Flexed foot length (cm) 19.8 (1.0) 21.5 (0.4) 19.5 (0.8) < 0.001
Truncated foot length (cm) 17.2 (1.0) 18.4 (0.8) 17.0 (0.8) < 0.001
Navicular height (cm) 4.8 (0.6) 5.1 (0.7) 4.7 (0.5) < 0.001
HVA (°) 18.8 (7.5) 16.3 (2.3) 19.3 (8.0) 0.065
Toe curl ability (%) 12.5 (4.4) 12.6 (1.0) 12.5 (4.7) 0.683
FAH (%) 27.8 (3.3) 27.8 (4.2) 27.8 (3.2) 0.709
  1. All data are expressed as mean (SD).
  2. HVA, Hallux valgus angle; Toe curl ability (foot length – flexed foot length)/foot length; FAH, Foot arch height, Navicular height/base of arch.