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Table 1 Navicular motion and velocity of navicular motion during over ground walking and running and during treadmill walking and running

From: Dynamic navicular motion measured using a stretch sensor is different between walking and running, and between over-ground and treadmill conditions

  Treadmill Over-ground TrW Vs TrBF TrR Vs TrW OGR Vs OGW TrW Vs OGW TrR Vs OGR
  TrW TrR TrBF OGW OGR Difference (95% CI) Difference (95% CI) Difference (95% CI) Difference (95% CI) Difference (95% CI)
(n = 25, 72-134 steps) (n = 24, 108-156 steps) (n = 21, 80-156 steps) (n = 25, 53-72 steps) (n = 25, 64-117 steps)
Navicular Motion – mm (95%CI) 8.5 9.9 8.0 7.0 8.6 0.5^ 1.2^ 1.6§ 1.5^ 1.4^
(7.0;10.1) (8.3;11.5) (6.6;9.4) (5.7;8.3) (7.6;9.6) (-0.5 to 1.5) (-0.1 to 2.4) (0.3 to 2.9) (0.8 to 2.3) (0.5 to 2.3)
      p = 0.34 p = 0.07 p = 0.02 p = 0.0004 p = 0.003
Velocity* - mm/s (95%CI) 130 394 142 249 396 18^ 273# 148§ 119# 2^
(97;164) (322;465) (118;167) (207;292) (337;455) (-8 to 44) (216 to 330) (117 to 179) (86 to 152) (-22 to 26)
      p = 0.16 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p < 0.0001 p = 0.85
  1. *Mean Peak velocity.
  2. # = large effect size (≥1.20); § = medium effect size (0.60 – 1.19); ^ = small effect size (<0.60).
  3. TrW = treadmill walking; TrR = treadmill running; TrBF = treadmill barefoot walking; OGW = over-ground walking; OGR = over-ground running; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval).