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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: The association of foot structure and footwear fit with disability in children and adolescents with Down syndrome

Characteristic Value Range
General   
 Age (years), mean (SD)a 10.6 (3.9) 5 to 18
 Sex, n (%) male 28 (56) N/A
 Type of DS, n (%)   N/A
 Trisomy 21/Translocation/Mosaic 44 (88)/5 (10)/1 (2)  
 Any type of medication, n (%) 23 (46) N/A
 Height (cm), mean (SD) 131.9 (18.6) 96.0 to 164.5
 Weight (kg), mean (SD) 39.6 (18.4) 16.3 to 85.1
 Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (SD)   
 Overall 21.5 (5.3) 13.8 to 34.9
 Males 21.1 (4.9) 14.7 to 33.8
 Females 22.1 (5.8) 13.8 to 34.9
Foot structure   
 Arch Index, mean (SD) 0.29 (0.08) 0.01 to 0.39
 Foot posture, n (%)b   
 Flat/typical/high arch 38 (76)/6 (12)/6 (12)  
 Hallux valgus, n (%) 5 (10) N/A
 Lesser toe deformity, n (%) 6 (12) N/A
Footwear fitc   
 Length (%) 9.0 (7.5) −14.3 to 23.3
 Width (%) −4.5 (10.0) −26.5 to 13.6
OxAFQ-C domain scores, mean (SD)   
 Physicald (%) 72.8 (21.4) 33.3 to 100.0
 School and playd (%) 84.9 (18.1) 31.3 to 100.0
 Emotionald (%) 92.9 (13.8) 43.8 to 100.0
 Footwear (%) 67.5 (3.9) 0.0 to 100.0
  1. aSD: Standard deviation.
  2. bBased on the Arch Index, foot postures were classified as follows: Arch Index ≥ 0.26 (flat), 0.22 < Arch Index < 0.26 (typical), Arch Index ≤ 0.21 (high arch) [19].
  3. cPercentage difference between shoe and foot dimensions. Positive values indicate shoe dimension greater than foot dimension. Measurements were based on n = 48 due to missing data.
  4. dParent-reported Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for Children (OxAFQ-C) domain scores were based on n = 49 due to missing data.